In this insight, CPI/PUC-Rio shows that Amazon deforestation affects rainfall in the state of Mato Grosso – one of the most important agricultural hubs in the world, home to more than three million people, and 8 hydroelectric power plants.
Leveraging Policy Tools to Improve Impact of Financial Instruments in Sustainable Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)
This brief seeks to inform the development of new sustainable AFOLU financial instruments, as well as replication of existing ones in new geographies.
- Oktober 18, 2021
The 2021 Global Landscape of Climate Finance shows that global climate finance reached USD 632 billion in 2019/2020, a 10% increase from 2017/2018.
- Oktober 18, 2021
A thorough tracking and analysis of public commitments to address climate change from more than 350 private financial actors across four financial sectors (asset owner, asset manager, commercial bank, insurer).
- Oktober 14, 2021
Energizing Finance, developed in partnership with Sustainable Energy for All, provides a comprehensive analysis of tracked finance commitments flowing to the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking.
This report consolidates the main findings of the academic literature that rigorously evaluates policies aimed at combating deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Additionally, it draws on empirical evidence to propose ways of strengthening Brazil’s policy agenda for protecting the Amazon Forest whilst promoting the region’s sustainable development. The report thereby aims to contribute to the design and implementation of an effective policy framework for Amazon conservation.
- Oktober 5, 2021
In this report, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio dig deeper into the link between cattle ranching and deforestation in the Amazon to investigate the economic dynamics behind it.
- Oktober 5, 2021
The combined impacts of Covid-19 and the current onslaught of climate shocks and stressors emphasizes the need for protection systems for the future – where people are better protected from extreme risk.
To better address food waste at the farm level, farmers—especially smallholder farmers—need access to efficient and clean cold storage solutions at affordable pricing. CaaS with VCCA helps smallholder farmers make decisions on lifecycle benefits, rather than upfront costs.
The Amazonia Sustainable Supply Chains Mechanism leverages off-take agreements for forest-compatible products to provide upfront finance, technical assistance, and structural community resources that catalyze the bioeconomy and keeps forests standing.
The Guarantee Fund for Biogas (GFB) is the first environmental-oriented guarantee fund in Brazil. By providing short-term collateral for biogas project loans, it unlocks public and private finance as a promising renewable energy source in the country.
The Smallholder Resilience Fund (SRF) is a blended investment fund and supporting venture studio that deploys synchronized investments and technical assistance across entire agricultural value chains of high-value, climate-smart crops to support smallholder farmers
Data-Driven Energy Access for Africa uses artificial intelligence to standardize metrics related to customer repayment risk, improving access to capital for distributors and efficient intermediation of credit and grants to better serve customers.
The ACT Fund’s unique blended–currency mechanism addresses high transaction costs and lead times, barriers that have constrained the project pipeline in West Africa, while also shortening and simplifying the project exit process to allow efficient redeployment of capital in further projects.
Governance, Area of Influence, and Environmental Risks of Transport Infrastructure Investments: Case Studies in the State of ParáSeptember 27, 2021
This study compiles a detailed overview of the four key federal infrastructure projects – either planned or being upgraded – in the state of Pará: Ferrogrão and BR-155/158, not yet started, and BR-163/230/MT/PA and BR-230, which are currently in the process of improvement.
The New Legal Framework for Railroad Authorizations Requires Adjustments to Strengthen the Socio-environmental, Governance, and Transparency Aspects of Projects: an Assessment of MP no. 1,065/2021 and PL no. 261/2018
In this Technical Note, CPI/PUC-Rio researchers draw off previous work and outline how the legal framework for railroad authorizations suffers from similar problems.
- September 16, 2021
This brief highlights the political and economic dynamics underpinning recent investments in coal-fired power in 18 high-impact countries, defined as the countries with the highest absolute gaps in access to electricity.
7 Peculiarities of Rural Credit in the Cerrado: Private Resources Attracted to Finance Large Producers Contrast with Scarcity of Credit for Family FarmingAgustus 9, 2021
This work seeks to provide a deeper understanding of rural financing in the Brazilian biomes and aims to help improve the credit policy and adapt this instrument to the specific challenges and context of the Cerrado.
Researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio conducted a survey and an analysis of all federal and state legislation on forest compensation currently in effect to better understand the evolution of forest compensation from a legislative perspective at the federal level, identify the federal regulations currently in effect, and provide an overview of state legislation, showing how states regulate the different elements of forest compensation.
Áreas de Preservação Permanente Podem Ser Reduzidas pela Metade e Agravar o Desmatamento. Substitutivo ao Projeto de Lei nº 1709/2019 Altera as Regras de APP em Todo o Brasil
Pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio analisaram o PL nº 1709/2019 e identificaram que, se esta proposta for aprovada, ela reduzirá pela metade a largura das faixas de APP de todos os cursos d’água no Brasil, o que permitiria o desmatamento de mais de 2 milhões de hectares de floresta nativa na Amazônia.
CPI’s Sustainable Infrastructure projects generate evidence on social, economic and environmental impacts of infrastructure projects to help governments successfully address local sustainable development, and also to inform civil society about infrastructure decisions.
Apresentação: Análise do Novo Procedimento Administrativo Sancionador do Ibama e seus Reflexos no Combate ao Desmatamento na Amazônia
Apresentação de pesquisadora do CPI/PUC-Rio analisando novo procedimento sancionador do Ibama e seus impactos.
- Juli 7, 2021
Despite their potential, Indonesia’s capital market is yet to see the issuance of municipal green bonds due to multiple challenges. This study explores the use of municipal bonds to support Indonesia’s energy transition targets and analyze the overall feasibility of implementing such bonds.
- Juni 30, 2021
The 2021 State of Cities Climate Finance Report examines the state of urban climate investment, the barriers to reaching the needed investment levels, and the steps to overcoming these challenges.
- Juni 29, 2021
The UK beta version of the Net Zero Finance Tracker is a first-of-its-kind interactive database to assess all financial actors’ response to climate change.
CPI contributed to a webinar series led by the United Nations Environment Program aimed at mobilizing investments in biodiversity as we build back economies in the aftermath of the pandemic.
This brief summarizes the findings from CPI/PUC-Rio that calculates the potential for increasing pasture productivity in the Legal Amazon by disseminating technologies that are widely used in just some parts of the region to all parts of the region.
In this brief, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio identify and analyze the socio-environmental components covered by the terms of reference for Technical, Economic and Environmental Feasibility Studies and Environmental Assessment Study.
Este estudo, realizado pelos pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, se insere no Amazônia 2030 e pretende dar subsídios para a discussão sobre o futuro da Zona Franca de Manaus ao investigar as origens históricas do modelo brasileiro, realizar uma revisão da literatura econômica sobre as políticas territoriais e efetuar uma análise comparativa entre a ZFM e experiências internacionais de zonas francas e zonas empresariais.
An assessment by CPI/PUC-Rio investigated the regulations applicable to federal railroad and highway concessions granted to the private sector.
Infográfico destaca como as mudanças recentes na lei podem aumentar o desmatamento e a impunidade na Amazônia.
Análise do Novo Procedimento Administrativo Sancionador do Ibama e seus Reflexos no Combate ao Desmatamento na Amazônia
Pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio analisaram o Decreto nº 9.760/2019 e demais normas regulamentadoras e a nova estrutura de governança do processo sancionador ambiental para entender os impactos das alterações na legislação e avaliar se as mesmas trazem uma maior efetividade ao procedimento administrativo sancionador ambiental do Ibama.
- Mei 31, 2021
This study, produced in collaboration with the Seoul National University, aims to analyze the COVID-19 recovery policies in South Korea and Indonesia, particularly the role of fiscal stimulus in their energy transition goals.
Como a Nova Lei de Licitações Abre Oportunidades para Melhor Prevenir os Impactos Socioambientais de Projetos de Infraestrutura?
Neste documento, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio analisam a nova lei e fazem recomendações para futuros decretos regulamentadores, com foco na prevenção dos impactos socioambientais de projetos de infraestrutura.
- Mei 10, 2021
This paper assesses the potential for Recovery Bonds to help sovereigns raise capital to fund a sustainable and climate-resilient post-COVID recovery.
- Bella Tonkonogy and June ChoiMei 10, 2021
A framework to guide financial system integrity and smooth the financial sector’s move to sustainability and net zero.
- Mei 10, 2021
DFC swaps can reduce the level of indebtedness, freeing up fiscal resources to be spent on green investments.
India will require an annual DRE investment of USD 18 billion by 2024, a 10x increase from current levels to meet its sustainability targets. This CPI report outlines the benefits and market potential of India’s DRE sector, examines the current policy and institutional landscape, and provides tailored recommendations for the different stakeholders.
6 Peculiarities of Rural Credit in the Amazon: New Research Shows Credit Restrictions and Extensive Land Use in AgricultureMei 3, 2021
CPI/PUC-Rio highlights six specific standards and conditions of rural credit, providing evidence for public actions and policies for local development, the sustainability of agricultural production, and environmental conservation.
O Deputado Bosco Saraiva, novo relator do PL nº 2633/2020, apresentou o seu parecer sobre o projeto de lei e propõe um novo substitutivo ao texto legal. Nesse trabalho, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio analisaram o novo substitutivo.
- Federico Mazza, Anna Balm and Hélène Van CaenegemMaret 26, 2021
In Kenya, KES 243.3 billion (USD 2.4 billion) flowed to climate-related investments in 2018, one third of the finance needed annually to meet its NDC.
- Maret 15, 2021
Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengukur dan mendapatkan wawasan dari para pelaku efisiensi energi, baik dari pemilik fasilitas maupun pelaku jasa efisiensi energi, tentang dampak pandemi terhadap bisnis mereka.
Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon: Public Policy Must Target Phenomenon Related to DeforestationMaret 9, 2021
To enhance understanding of this phenomenon, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio empirically characterized the dynamics of degradation and its relationship with clear-cut deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
- Maret 3, 2021
This report sets the stage to explore the mandate and capacities of National Development Banks in accelerating financing for local governments’ climate-smart urban infrastructure.
Nova Investida Contra Legislação Fundiária: Projeto de Lei nº 510/2021 Retoma os Retrocessos da MP nº 910/2019 e Beneficia Invasores de Terras Públicas
Para entender o que está em discussão e avaliar as implicações do PL nº 510/2021 nas políticas fundiária e ambiental, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio selecionaram os principais parâmetros da Lei nº 11.952/2009 alterados pelo PL nº 510/2021 e compararam a lei em vigor com os dois principais projetos de lei em discussão, o PL nº 2633/2020 e o PL nº 510/2021.
Global cooling needs are significant and expected to continue growing rapidly. This knowledge brief proposes a new approach to identify and track cooling transactions.
Improving the impact of fiscal stimulus in Asia: An analysis of green recovery investments and opportunitiesFebruari 17, 2021
India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, and South Korea have together announced a total of USD 884 billion in COVID-19 recovery stimulus packages. This study maps the ‘greenness’ of these fiscal stimulus measures and their contribution towards country-level climate objectives.
Improving Public Contracting Processes of Socio-Enviromental Studies for Brazil's Land Transportation ProjectsFebruari 11, 2021
In this report, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio analyze in detail the public contracting process for EVTEA and EIAs for land transport infrastructure projects in the Amazon and reveal: a lack of transparency in the contracting process and a lack of criteria for selection, evaluation and approval of the studies.
Avanços ou Retrocessos na Regularização Fundiária? Análise do Projeto de Lei Nº 2633/2020 sob o Enfoque das Salvaguardas Ambientais
Para entender o que está em discussão e avaliar a eficácia do atual PL nº 2633/2020, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio fizeram uma análise detalhada da legislação fundiária em vigor e de todas as propostas que foram discutidas ao longo do processo de tramitação da MP nº 910/2019 e do PL nº 2633/2020.
- Februari 5, 2021
While many cities have begun enacting policies and programs to build resilience towards climate hazards, there are numerous barriers to financing urban adaptation activities.
This report provides an overview of the potential for climate finance, green finance and innovative finance to accelerate China’s decarbonization and support its transition to a green economy.
- Januari 28, 2021
This Landscape informs ongoing efforts by the Government of South Africa to understand how climate finance flows throughout the economy.
- Januari 22, 2021
As we enter a new year is that there is not only an array of tools at our disposal to tackle this existential challenge, but also growing recognition of the urgency to do so.
- Chavi Meattle, Angela Falconer and Valérie FurioJanuari 21, 2021
We outline the process for developing a national climate finance landscape in four steps. By working through each step, countries will learn key insights to how, when, and from whom finance is flowing towards climate action.
- Januari 6, 2021
Understanding the impact of rural credit is essential for formulating better agricultural policies in Brazil. In this Insight, researchers from the CPI / PUC-Rio detail the effects of credit in each Brazilian biome.
- Desember 31, 2020
In just three years, USICEF has identified over 30 early-stage businesses across 20 states in India, mobilized USD 200mn in debt financing, and has committed a total of USD 5.1 million in grant-based funding to these projects.
- Udetanshu, Himanshu Baghel and David NelsonDesember 29, 2020
Karnataka is well placed to meet its energy needs over the next decade thanks to the rapid deployment of renewables. But capacity additions of solar and wind are not enough on their own to help the state meet its targets.
- Udetanshu, Himanshu Baghel and David NelsonDesember 29, 2020
This case study addresses key elements of electricity market reforms and technology development that are central to the ability of Tamil Nadu, and India as a whole, to meet its decarbonisation goals.
- Desember 18, 2020
This update to the Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2019 report offers a preliminary estimate for finance in 2019, drawing on data published in 2020.
- Desember 14, 2020
From the USD 20.5 trillion pledged to COVID-19 recovery globally, only USD 1.1 trillion dollars have been committed to cities.
- Desember 10, 2020
Globally, 29% of new power investment in 2018, or approximately USD 129 billion, was invested in fossil fuel power putting the world on a temperature trajectory of over 3.2°C – more than double the level targeted in the Paris Agreement.
Where Does Brazil Stand With the Implementation of the Forest Code? A Snapshot of the CAR and the PRA in Brazil's States – 2020 EditionDesember 10, 2020
The report provides a detailed analysis of state regulations and identifies actions underway in the states. It highlights progress made to date and the strategies enacted by states that are farther
ahead, as well as key gaps and challenges, and opportunities to accelerate the implementation of the law.
- Desember 7, 2020
Nesse relatório, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio apresentam uma avaliação aprofundada das políticas brasileiras de crédito rural e discutem seus progressos recentes e atuais desafios. A análise se baseia em anos de pesquisa e discussões com tomadores de decisões, setor privado e pesquisadores acadêmicos.
- Matthew Huxham, Muhammed Anwar, Eoin Strutt and David NelsonDesember 2, 2020
Since 2013, the value of Uganda’s oil reserves has fallen more than $40bn (70%) to $18bn. Under a low-carbon transition aligned with Paris goals, the value of the oil could drop further, to 88% of its value seven years ago.
- November 26, 2020
This CPI study explores crop diversification opportunities to support independent smallholders in Berau for better long-term outcomes
- November 19, 2020
The Energizing Finance series provides a comprehensive analysis of commitments flowing to the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking.
- November 18, 2020
While challenging, scaling up climate finance ideas is possible, and is greatly facilitated by four success factors that can be influenced by the entrepreneurs developing these initiatives and their stakeholders.
- November 12, 2020
Less than 2% of total climate finance goes to small-scale farmers in developing nations. This report proposes a methodology to measure climate finance flows to small-scale agriculture in developing countries and provides a snapshot of climate finance to small-scale agriculture in 2017/18.
Brazil's Infrastructure Project Life Cycles: From Planning to Viability. Creation of a New Phase May Increase Project QualityNovember 12, 2020
In this brief, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio and Inter.B collaborated to analyze the instruments available for infrastructure planning – particularly those related to the land transport sector.
- November 10, 2020
This report provides actionable recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders to scale up investment and mobilize capital in the renewable energy sector.
Indeks Desa Membangun Plus (IDM+): Enhancing Direct Incentives for Sustainable Land Use in Indonesian VillagesNovember 5, 2020
This paper proposes a two-part approach for a potentially sweeping, but relatively practical reform to encourage villages across Indonesia to adopt sustainable practices.
- Oktober 9, 2020
In this Whitepaper, researchers from CPI/PUC-Rio highlights the need for the logistics projects’ EVTEA and EIAs to incorporate and correctly identify the indirect effects that result from the changes in transportation costs induced by improvements. It describes how using a combination of geoprocessing tools and statistical analysis can be used to identify these impacts and provides an example of their importance.
This brief, part of the Energizing Finance series, provides an analysis of international finance commitments and disbursements to Sierra Leone – one of the countries worst affected by the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak.
GreenStreet Africa develops and aggregates portfolios of distributed solar projects at public health and education facilities for implementation by private IPPs or ESCOs, financed with local capital markets solutions.
GROVE: FSL crowdfunds capital for smallscale forestry projects, reduces monitoring costs through remote sensing and machine learning, and increases financial transparency and local community earnings through blockchain-backed smart contracts.
MWS is a novel, collaborative approach to improve economic outcomes for farmers, create resilient supply chains and increase water efficiency by using “pay for performance” to accelerate sustainable agriculture practices in water-stressed regions
SnCF is expected to be the first private equity fund to feature a Technical Assistance Facility that provides local government capacity building and certifies all projects for SDG impact prior to investment.
The first instrument to address water scarcity in Southern Africa by streamlining adaptation project financing into a single instrument through a partnership between commercial banks and institutional investors.
- Ferrogrão - Weaknesses and Lessons Learned in Implementing a Sustainable Infrastructure AgendaSeptember 23, 2020
O CPI/PUC-Rio analisou a governança, o planejamento e os riscos ambientais da Ferrogrão, como forma de contribuir para o debate sobre políticas e projetos de infraestrutura sustentável no país. Esse resumo executivo apresenta três estudos realizados no último ano, os quais: (i) analisam a robustez do planejamento da Ferrogrão, a partir de perguntas estruturadoras, que deveriam ser elaboradas em uma fase de pré-viabilidade; (ii) avaliam o rito administrativo e a governança do processo de tomada de decisão referente ao projeto; e (iii) desenvolvem uma metodologia inovadora para compreender a área de influência e o risco de desmatamento da Ferrogrão.
- September 11, 2020
Climate Policy Initiative’s Landscape of Green Finance in India presents the most comprehensive information on green investment flows in the country in FY 2017-FY 2018.
O atual Código Florestal tem sido objeto de propostas legislativas para alterar seu conteúdo desde sua edição. Pesquisadoras do CPI/ PUC-Rio fizeram o levantamento e análise dos projetos de lei em tramitação no Congresso Nacional e identificaram que há, atualmente, 56 projetos de lei que pretendem modificar as regras do Código Florestal, dos quais sete podem anular avanços feitos até hoje para a sua implementação.
Este trabalho tem o objetivo de explicar o desenho de leilão de EE e apontar e analisar os potenciais riscos do modelo proposto para implementação do piloto em Roraima. As contribuições são direcionadas para mitigar os riscos da maldição do vencedor, aperfeiçoar a metodologia escolhida de medição e verificação e apresentar os desafios de implementação associados a falta de alinhamento entre os interesses da distribuidora de energia elétrica e o planejador central.
Neste relatório, os pesquisadores CPI/PUC-Rio analisam os atuais instrumentos e políticas públicas de gestão de riscos e discutem caminhos para aprimorá-los na agricultura brasileira.
This report provides an overview of the development of green banking practices in China, identifying major policies and practices, performance to date, as well as barriers to further
- Agustus 4, 2020
This paper focuses on enhancing the role that National Development Banks play in supporting the acceleration of climate-smart urban infrastructure investment.
A Importância de Aprimorar a Definição e a Delimitação da Área de Influência de Projetos de InfraestruturaAgustus 4, 2020
Nesta nota técnica, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio (i) analisam como a área de influência é atualmente definida pelas instituições governamentais e nos termos de referência dos EVTEA e dos EIAs de empreendimentos de infraestrutura de transportes terrestres; (ii) apresentam um conjunto de recomendações para a adoção de critérios mais claros para a definição e delimitação das áreas de influência de novos projetos, a partir de uma perspectiva que incorpora explicitamente onde ocorrem os impactos diretos e indiretos desse tipo de empreendimento; e (iii) propõem um diálogo entre o EVTEA e o EIA.
O Papel das Cooperativas no Crédito Rural: Crédito Cooperativo Cresce em Meio à Crise Econômica e Auxilia na Inclusão de Pequeno ProdutorJuli 23, 2020
O presente trabalho, fruto de uma parceria entre o CPI/ PUC-Rio e o Observatório de Cooperativas da USP, analisa a atuação das cooperativas no crédito rural, bem como sua evolução recente e seus potenciais desafios.
O Brasil Precisa Monitorar sua Regeneração Tropical: Sistema de Monitoramento Remoto é Tecnologicamente Factível, mas Precisa de Apoio da Política Pública
Este documento do CPI/PUC-Rio, traz recomendações para avançar no desenvolvimento de sistemas de monitoramento remoto da vegetação secundária.
There is a growing need to sensitize India’s financial sector about the importance and benefits of Green Finance, and ways to accelerate green capital flows in India.
This paper explores how green finance in China can go beyond financing assets that are consistent with sustainability goals to fulfill the investment needs required to transform sectors or China’s economy to a more sustainable model.
This policy brief, analyzes the production line of air conditioning sector in Brazil with a focus on productive and energy efficiency.
- Juni 10, 2020
The Chinese green bond market expanded rapidly from 2016-2019, with more than USD 120 billion of cumulative issuance.
Ajustes no Projeto da Nova Lei de Concessões Podem Garantir uma Infraestrutura Mais Sustentável e de Maior Qualidade
Nesta nota técnica, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio analisam a tramitação legislativa do projeto da nova Lei de Concessões sob o enfoque socioambiental, com o objetivo de sugerir elementos que poderiam ser incorporados ao projeto para antecipar potenciais conflitos que hoje são tratados nas fases posteriores do ciclo de vida dos projetos – notadamente durante o licenciamento ambiental, proporcionando a licitação de projetos mais robustos e de maior qualidade, promovendo a maior segurança dos investimentos e garantindo a proteção socioambiental
Áreas Protegidas, Embora Críticas, não são Suficientes para Desacelerar o Desmatamento na Amazônia: O Brasil Precisa de Políticas de Conservação Direcionadas e Coordenadas
Um novo estudo do CPI/PUC-Rio mostra que áreas protegidas conferiram proteção efetiva às florestas dentro de suas fronteiras, mas parecem ter desviado o desmatamento para regiões desprotegidas. Os resultados destacam a eficácia local da proteção territorial e, assim, corroboram seu uso como forma de proteger áreas críticas. No entanto, também reforçam que é fundamental integrar estratégias de proteção territorial e políticas de conservação complementares para frear o desmatamento em toda a Amazônia.
- Mei 14, 2020
Existing decentralized renewable energy business models fail to address prevailing barriers in the sector, ranging from policy barriers, limited access to finance, and high investment risks, discouraging private investments.
The regulatory framework of a public service agency provides solid legal basis for a robust and flexible vehicle to fund activities for public interest, including managing money from international donors.
Pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio elaboraram 10 perguntas e respostas para esclarecer de forma bem simples o que está em jogo com a MP 910/2019.
- April 9, 2020
This brief outlines the current state of global finance for climate adaptation, and includes potential new data sources and recommendations to improve adaptation finance tracking going forward.
Ao Mirar no Desmatamento, Brasil Acerta na Regeneração: Combate ao Desmatamento na Amazônia Promove Regeneração Tropical
Um novo estudo do CPI/PUC-Rio mostra que monitoramento e fiscalização ambientais focados na contenção exclusiva do desmatamento primário ajudaram a impulsionar a regeneração tropical. Os resultados sugerem que os ganhos ambientais e socioeconômicos das políticas de conservação podem ser maiores do que inicialmente suposto. Hoje, incorporar a promoção e a proteção da regeneração tropical em sua agenda de política ambiental seria uma decisão estratégica e oportuna para o Brasil.
Novo Relatório do Senador Irajá Abreu sobre a MP 910/2019, Mantém Regras Prejudiciais à Regularização Fundiária
A análise preliminar deste novo relatório feita pelas pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio identificou que o relator: (i) mantém as principais regras prejudiciais à regularização fundiária; (ii) recua em alguns avanços que tinham sido feitos no relatório anterior; (iii) faz alguns avanços tímidos e (iv) insere contrabandos legislativos.
Este estudo, realizado por pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, busca contribuir para esse debate, ao analisar o impacto da Zona Franca de Manaus sobre a indústria brasileira, no que tange particularmente à eficiência produtiva e à eficiência energética.
Os Impactos do Crédito Rural na Produção Agropecuária e no Uso da Terra: Uma Análise por Linhas de Crédito, Tipo de Produtor e Finalidade do Crédito
Neste trabalho, o CPI/PUC-RIO faz uma análise detalhada do impacto da política de crédito rural na produção agrícola, uso da terra e desmatamento no Brasil.
A análise do relatório legislativo feita pelas pesquisadoras do CPI/ PUC-Rio identificou que as principais mudanças propostas pelo relator flexibilizam consideravelmente mais as regras para a regularização fundiária. As alterações: (i) favorecem ainda mais médios e grandes ocupantes de terras públicas, em detrimento de pequenos agricultores; (ii) diminuem o controle sobre áreas embargadas ou que foram objeto de infração ambiental; e (iii) mantém o desalinhamento das políticas fundiária e ambiental.
Análise dos pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio mostra que a construção da Ferrogrão incentivará agricultores e pecuaristas localizados no estado do Mato Grosso a ampliarem a produção, aumentando a demanda por terras. Caso nenhuma medida de mitigação seja implementada, isso pode induzir o desmatamento de cerca 2.043 quilômetros quadrados de vegetação nativa em quase quarenta municípios desse estado.
Pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio analisaram estas emendas e descobriram que elas poderão diminuir automaticamente a Reserva Legal de 80% para 50% nos estados de Roraima e Amapá, enfraquecendo a proteção da Floresta Amazônica no Código Florestal, além de reduzir mais de quatro mil hectares da Floresta Nacional de Roraima.
Medida Provisória Recompensa Atividades Criminosas: Análise da MP 910/2019 que Altera o Marco Legal da Regularização Fundiária de Ocupações em Terras Públicas Federais
A análise da MP 910/2019 feita pelas pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio indica que a MP 910/2019: legitima a grilagem e o desmatamento ilegal; promove o desalinhamento das políticas fundiária e ambiental e favorece médio e grandes produtores rurais em detrimento de agricultores familiares, povos indígenas e comunidades tradicionais.
In this brief, we set out potential methods to fill data gaps in adaptation tracking in the Landscape and propose methods to measure progress.
Where does Brazil Stand With the Implementation of the Forest Code? A Snapshot of the CAR and the PRA in Brazil's States
This document summarizes the main findings and takeaways of a full report (available in Portuguese) produced by analysts from (CPI/PUC-Rio). The full report provides an overview of the Forest Code in Brazil’s states, and gives a detailed analysis of regulatory efforts at the state level. It identifies actions already underway in the states, progress made, major challenges and flaws, and primary public policy recommendations.
The International Development Finance Club (IDFC) is the leading group of 26 national and regional development banks from all over the world, the majority of which are active in emerging markets. During the United Nations Climate Action Summit 2019, IDFC resolved to mobilize significant volumes of financing for meeting climate and development goals.
Este trabalho do CPI/PUC-Rio, descreve a relação entre produtividade pecuária e a porcentagem das fazendas utilizada como pastagem. Estimativas utilizando dados dos Censos Agropecuários das últimas quatro décadas mostram que essas variáveis são inversamente relacionadas, indicando que a pecuária se torna mais produtiva à medida que a área de pastagens cai. Exercícios empíricos adicionais apontam que o custo relativo da terra vis-à-vis o capital pode explicar essa relação. Por fim, o documento discute lições para políticas públicas que podem mostrar um caminho para aumentar a produtividade sem induzir novos desmatamentos.
O Brasil Sabe como Deter o Desmatamento na Amazônia: Monitoramento e Fiscalização Funcionam e Devem ser Fortalecidos
A presente análise, elaborada por pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, mostra que esse sistema de monitoramento e fiscalização no combate ao desmatamento funciona. Além disso, a análise indica que a proteção da floresta não interferiu na produção agropecuária local e que os benefícios da política superaram seus custos.
- November 7, 2019
The 2019 edition of Climate Policy Initiative’s Global Landscape of Climate Finance provides the most comprehensive overview of global climate-related primary investment.
Infraestrutura Sustentável na Amazônia: Fortalecendo Critérios Socioambientais para a Viabilidade de Projetos no BrasilOktober 31, 2019
Esse projeto desenvolvido pelo CPI/PUC-Rio, possui o objetivo de apresentar propostas de alteração da regulação e das diretrizes vigentes, validadas por especialistas, para melhorar o processo de decisão quanto ao risco socioambiental e econômico ao longo do ciclo de vida de um projeto de infraestrutura, e promover o diálogo com os atores chave envolvidos na tomada de decisão para a implementação dessas propostas.
- Padraig Oliver, Alex Clark and Angela FalconerOktober 28, 2019
This brief, which is part of CPI’s work on tracking global climate finance flows, proposes a preliminary methodological approach and analytical framework to measure the nature and speed of shifts in private capital in response to climate change.
- Oktober 25, 2019
Neste documento, especialistas do CPI/PUC-Rio e INPUT trazem uma análise das mudanças recentes e explicam as implicações para os produtores rurais com o objetivo de auxiliá-los a entrar em conformidade com a lei. A participação efetiva dos produtores no cumprimento das normas é fundamental para a implementação do Código Florestal.
- Oktober 22, 2019
The Energizing Finance series, developed by SE4All in partnership with CPI, is the first and only in-depth attempt to capture multiple years of data on finance for the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking.
Congresso Nacional Aprova Alterações ao Código Florestal: Mudanças na Lei Trazem Mais Segurança Jurídica para o CAR e o PRAOktober 17, 2019
Neste documento, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio, por meio da iniciativa INPUT, apresentam uma análise detalhada das alterações ao Código Florestal decorrentes da Lei 13.887/2019, esclarecem a aplicação das novas regras, examinam lacunas existentes e identificam possíveis desafios de implementação.
O Futuro da Infraestrutura do Brasil em Discussão: Visão Integrada dos Projetos de Lei em Tramitação é Necessária para Garantir AvançosOktober 10, 2019
Neste documento, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio analisam a oportunidade de um debate integrado para garantir um futuro de melhor infraestrutura para o país com conservação ambiental, tendo como ponto de partida os projetos de lei em curso. O setor produtivo e a sociedade como um todo podem se beneficiar.
- Oktober 2, 2019
Lab members voted to endorse all six financial mechanisms and enterprises in the Lab’s 2019 class in a side event to the UN Climate Action Summit, officially launching them for operation, and offering inputs for their implementation pathways.
A social enterprise that finances and manages implementation of mangrove restoration and conservation by capturing the financial benefits generated by reducing property damage risks and storing blue carbon
A standardized, digital index crop insurance platform for smallholder farmers that addresses the impacts of climate change on crop production by making insurance more transparent, efficient, and scalable
A pay-per-service model to decrease energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from cooling systems in cities around the world, by making more efficient cooling technologies more accessible to customers
- September 27, 2019
A bond issue with tied in technical assistance and financial incentives for local governments to finance air pollution and GHG emission reducing urban infrastructure in emerging market cities
- September 19, 2019
This study identifies the changes the Paris Agreement implies for the role of Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) – specifically members of the IDFC – and how they may implement these changes through a targeted set of activities.
Projeto de Lei de Conversão da MP 884/2019 Inviabiliza a Regularização Ambiental de Propriedades Rurais
Nesta nota técnica, CPI/PUC-Rio analisam o Projeto de Lei de Conversão 22/2019 proveniente da Medida Provisória 884/2019, que altera artigos do Código Florestal e pode regularizar automaticamente milhares de propriedades rurais se for aprovado no Congresso Nacional sem alterações. O PLV 22/2019, aprovado por unanimidade no dia 4 de setembro de 2019, na Comissão Mista da MPV 884/2019, afeta drasticamente o Programa de Regularização Ambiental (PRA).
- Agustus 27, 2019
Studi CPI ini, yang diproduksi sebagai bagian dari Proyek LEOPALD atau Pengembangan Kelapa Sawit Rendah Emisi, menguji apakah potensi kelapa sawit sebagai pendorong ekonomi akan mendukung tujuan Indonesia dengan menggunakan Berau sebagai contoh kasus.
Nova Proposta de Alteração do Código Florestal Traz Ameaças à sua Implementação: Medida Provisória 884/2019 Possui Implicações que Vão Além do CAR
Nesta nota técnica, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, indentificam que a Lei 12.651/2012, conhecida como novo Código Florestal, constitui uma oportunidade única para o Brasil conciliar o aumento da produção agropecuária e a preservação do meio ambiente. Porém, passados sete anos da sua publicação e pacificadas as discussões sobre a sua aplicação pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, a sua implementação está sob risco.
- Juli 10, 2019
Alternative Investment Funds offer the best near and medium-term path to expanding renewable energy access to capital markets.
Caminhos para Produção Agropecuária Sustentável no Brasil: Potenciais Ganhos e Investimentos Necessários para Aumentar a Produtividade Brasileira
Esta publicação resume os principais resultados de uma pesquisa recente realizada pelo CPI/PUC-Rio, a qual estimou os custos de capital necessários para maximizar a produtividade agrícola no Brasil sem aumentar o desmatamento. Os pesquisadores concluíram que o país pode aumentar o valor da produção agrícola entre 79-105% e o valor da produção pecuária em 27% sem ocasionar mais desmatamento.
Alinhamento do Crédito Rural com o Código Florestal: Resultados Podem Ser Obtidos sem Custos Adicionais
Neste documento, elaborado pelo CPI/PUC-Rio, recomenda-se que a associação entre o Crédito Rural e o Código Florestal seja colocada em prática no próximo Plano Safra (2019/2020).
This CPI study, produced in collaboration with PT Sarana Multi Infrastruktur (Persero) explores the potential of developing a green investment bank model in Indonesia.
Esta Nota Técnica mostra que aprovação do Projeto de Lei de Conversão da forma proposta pelo relator representa um retrocesso, pois enfraquece e retarda a implementação do novo Código Florestal. Em especial, a proposta gera um grande risco de paralização de todos os PRA em andamento, amplia os benefícios aos proprietários rurais que desmataram ilegalmente, além de trazer um risco concreto de judicialização das novas regras por alterarem drasticamente a Lei 12.651/2012.
Esta publicação apresenta um resumo dos resultados de uma pesquisa realizada pelo CPI/PUC-Rio sobre o papel do crédito rural no Brasil. Os analistas do CPI determinaram, pelo projeto INPUT, que o crédito rural tem impacto significativo no aumento da produtividade agropecuária e na melhoria do uso da terra. Os analistas concluem que a falta de recursos financeiros frequentemente limita as possibilidades de produção dos produtores rurais no Brasil. Um melhor acesso a crédito permite que os produtores tomem novas decisões que levam a maior produtividade.
Decreto nº 9.760/2019 Altera Regras de Conversão de Multa Ambiental em Prestação de Serviços Ambientais
Neste documento, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio, através do projeto INPUT, analisam as principais mudanças provocadas por esse novo decreto no procedimento de conversão de multa ambiental, identificando quais regras foram mantidas, quais foram alteradas e quais foram revogadas. Para uma melhor compreensão do impacto dessas mudanças, as pesquisadoras também mapeiam como se deu a evolução da legislação federal sobre conversão de multa ambiental. Finalmente, são identificadas as principais incertezas e lacunas que precisam ser enfrentadas para a efetiva implementação do programa de conversão de multa.
Este documento, produzido pelos pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, propõe medidas para consolidar e aprimorar monitoramento e aplicação da lei no âmbito do combate ao desmatamento ilegal. As propostas têm como base um conjunto de evidências empíricas sobre efetividade e limitações de políticas públicas brasileiras.
- Maret 26, 2019
O relatório, realizado pelo CPI/PUC-Rio em cooperação com o Banco Interamericano de Desenvolvimento mostra que o Brasil tem potencial para impulsionar o crescimento econômico sustentável usando suas terras de maneira mais produtiva, dando escala à ação em energia renovável e eficiência energética e reduzindo o tempo gasto no transporte de carga e o desperdiçado pelos trabalhadores no trânsito.
Esta nota técnica identifica que as maiores ameaças ao Código Florestal dizem respeito às regras relativas ao PRA, à aplicação da lei no tempo com relação ao percentual de Reserva Legal e à reposição florestal obrigatória. Algumas emendas pretendem, ainda, reintroduzir na Lei no 12.651/2012, regras que já foram objeto de declaração de inconstitucionalidade pelo STF.
- Udetanshu, Brendan Pierpont, Saarthak Khurana and David NelsonFebruari 13, 2019
Without policy intervention and new market design, India’s clean electricity future may struggle to achieve its potential.
The Land-use Finance Tool offers methodological guidelines to countries, jurisdictions and their partners to map public and private investments that support forest and climate objectives, and those which might be driving deforestation.
Neste sumário, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio propõe um ponto de partida para encarar os desafios do reflorestamento em escala. Eles argumentam que áreas desmatadas sob domínio público na Amazônia oferecem uma oportunidade única para o Brasil implementar o reflorestamento em larga escala recorrendo à regeneração florestal natural.
- Desember 13, 2018
This report explores the current state of finance for climate adaptation and proposes practical, near term solutions to both fill in knowledge gaps and to increase investment.
In this report, CPI/PUC-Rio explores municipality-level information on revenues, operating costs and farm equipment to quantify the costs of maximizing Brazil’s agricultural production without increasing deforestation.
Como acelerar o crescimento da produção sustentável no Brasil? Qual é o papel da política pública? Qual é a agenda de reformas necessárias nos instrumentos financeiros existentes no país? Nesse documento, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio destacam que há três diretivas que merecem destaque.
- November 27, 2018
Global Climate Finance: An Updated View 2018 condenses a set of updated findings from our Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2017 report based on newly published data for 2015 and 2016, to provide the latest and best information possible for policy makers and investment leaders working to scale up investment for climate change action.
- November 19, 2018
This study aims to understand the role of public finance instruments for clean energy and identify opportunities to optimize them to spur private investment in Indonesia.
- November 12, 2018
The Energizing Finance series focuses on public and private finance commitments in 20 developing countries – known as the high-impact countries – that together account for nearly 80% of those living without access to sustainable energy.
- November 3, 2018
Based on economic and policy analysis by CPI/PUC-Rio in cooperation with the Inter-American Development Bank , Brazil’s Ministry of Planning, Development and Management, and the WWF, This report looks at three sectors that are critical to creating a greener future for the nation: land use, energy, and transportation. For all three sectors, CPI delivers one message: promoting economic growth aligns with achieving Brazil’s climate commitments.
- Jolly Sinha, Sagar Srijan Joshi and Gireesh ShrimaliOktober 31, 2018
A CAPEX model with a commercial loan for the off-taker is a potential solution for these categories of customers. In this report, we assess the viability of the CAPEX loan model with a focus on the MSME sector, identify barriers to uptake, and recommended policy solutions to these barriers.
- Oktober 26, 2018
This brief focuses on the business model aspects of two alternative livelihoods – cattle feed and fisheries – with application specifically to the East Kotawaringin and Katingan districts of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
Selected for development from among hundreds of ideas submitted, the Lab’s investors prioritized ideas from sectors that remain critical for climate change action.
- Oktober 8, 2018
The proposed Credit Guarantee Mechanism addresses the most important barriers to scaling rooftop solar in the MSME sector; and could be crucial if India wants to achieve its rooftop solar target by 2022.
A Dinâmica da Adoção de Tecnologias Agrícolas no Brasil: Evidência Indica Três Padrões Distintos de Adoção de Tecnologias
Este relatório de pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio e INPUT tem como objetivo preencher a ausência informações atualizadas sobre o uso de tecnologias e insumos em nível desagregado. Ele explora dados ao nível municipal para descrever a evolução de três práticas agrícolas frequentemente conectadas com processos de intensificação agrícola: sistema de plantio direto na palha, tratores e fertilizantes.
Os pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio mostram que a eficiência energética e a eficiência produtiva na indústria brasileira estão relacionadas, ou seja, os desafios de promoção da eficiência energética estão alinhados a questões mais amplas sobre a produtividade do setor.
- September 28, 2018
A vehicle to promote the responsible production of commodities, particularly soy, in the Brazilian Cerrado biome, through incentives to plant in already cleared and degraded lands
- Saurabh Trivedi and Chavi MeattleSeptember 28, 2018
An electric bus battery financing mechanism to provide long-term debt financing to the electric transit sector in India, and reduce the ownership cost of electric buses to compete with diesel buses
- Divjot Singh, Jolly Sinha and Gireesh ShrimaliSeptember 28, 2018
A vehicle to accelerate mass adoption of residential rooftop solar to power 200 million households in India, through standardized product offering, easy financing and efficient execution at scale
A vehicle to accelerate investment in clean transit by lowering the upfront cost of electric buses, allowing a utility to capitalize the on-board battery and charging station for bus owners and recover its costs with a predictable monthly charge
A fund to increase forest restoration in the Amazon by investing and providing technical assistance to restore degraded lands in smallholders’ farms with agroforestry systems and, at the same time, developing and facilitating sales of their products
The Distributed Energy for Social Housing Fund (DESH) is a financial solution that can accelerate distributed solar power for low-income tenants in Brazil. It is a third-party ownership and rental model for distributed solar systems in low-income condominiums in Brazil. It provides a robust, low-risk structure for investors, and energy cost savings for the low-income tenants.
- Vaibhav Pratap Singh and Labanya Prakash JenaSeptember 10, 2018
Financing for Low-Carbon Auto-Rickshaws is a loan product that will enable drivers to purchase electric auto-rickshaws by providing debt financing for 100% of the purchase, lower interest rates, and no collateral requirements.
- September 10, 2018
The Smallholder Forestry Vehicle packages tree production partnership contracts with thousands of smallholder farmers and sells them to investors, providing farmers and forestry companies with access to low-cost, long-term finance while enabling institutional investors to access sustainable forestry investments.
Given the fundamental role finance plays in all facets of the global economy, it’s time to ask: How does a focus on 2050 change how we spend money today?
- Tiza Mafira, Randy Rakhmadi and Cherika Novianti HardjakusumahJuli 16, 2018
Analisis CPI ini berkontribusi terhadap tujuan pemerintah Berau membangun perkebunan berkelanjutan dengan memetakan rantai pasokan minyak sawit di Berau.
Neste trabalho, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, em parceria com o Banco Central do Brasil, identificam aspectos da política de crédito rural que criam fragmentação de regras e, consequentemente, variação adicional no acesso ao crédito e nas condições de empréstimo.
- Vinit Atal, Dhruba Purkayastha and Gireesh ShrimaliJuni 18, 2018
Analyzing all the pertinent constraints to the stakeholders in this case study we propose a solution that appears most feasible: A Transitional Foreign Exchange Debt Platform.
This CPI working paper focuses on understanding what would be needed for adaptation and resilience companies – specifically, analytics, or intelligence, companies – to expand in developing countries. Analytics companies help clients measure their potential impacts from climate change and identify measures to reduce them.
A four-report series that looks at the future of renewable energy in India along different economic dimensions, including the social costs, macroeconomic impacts, environmental impacts, financial risk, and flexibility considerations.
One of the most important risks to the Indian renewable energy sector is the counterparty credit risk, associated with the risk of state-owned utilities delaying or defaulting on their contractual payments to power producers, adding as much as 1.07% of additional risk premium to the cost of debt for renewable energy projects (CPI, 2018), and also limiting the availability of capital.
- April 3, 2018
In keeping with its goals for sustainable economic growth and an inclusive and equitable economy, Indonesia is committed to avoiding deforestation. As the drivers of deforestation often originate from activities outside of forest borders, it is not enough to solve deforestation by conducting segregated actions targeted to specific forest areas. Indonesia must also work to strengthen the rural economy and improve regional collaboration by working across various administrative jurisdictions that encompass forest governance. To ensure the success of this jurisdictional approach, improved economic power and village governance are key.
- Donovan Escalante, Dario Abramskiehn, Karoline Hallmeyer and Jessica BrownMaret 27, 2018
As governments and development finance institutions scale up delivery of climate finance commitments, the question of how to measure and ensure additionality becomes increasingly important. This paper presents new methodological approaches for assessing the additionality of climate investments, developed by Climate Policy initiative through ongoing work monitoring and evaluating the Climate Public Private Partnership (CP3).
O cumprimento das normas pelos produtores rurais é fundamental para a efetiva implementação do Código Florestal. Para auxilia-los a entrar em conformidade com a lei, o CPI/PUC-Rio e projeto INPUT trazem, neste documento, um resumo do resultado do julgamento do STF, assim como suas implicações para os produtores.
This study finds that while the renewable energy sector in India offers an attractive investment opportunity that is well matched with the needs of institutional investors, there are still barriers to investment.
- Padraig Oliver, Bella Tonkonogy, David Wang and Xueying WangMaret 7, 2018
In light of not only the scale of climate finance needs, but also the type of public finance instruments needed to leverage private flows, the importance of more connected coordination and collaboration by international public climate finance actors is crucial. Systems thinking approaches support the recognition of the effects of existing and new actors on scaling overall flows and their direction of travel, as well as support the collective optimisation of public finance interventions to achieve the scale needed – helping to understand not only the specific niche of each actor, but also how actors can most effectively coordinate and collaborate to achieve enduring impact.
Em novo artigo, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio comentam que apesar do Supremo Tribunal Federal manter os principais pilares da lei que instituiu o novo Código Florestal e abrir caminho para a sua implementação, com relação à Cota de Reserva Ambiental, ainda há uma incoerência importante.
Em nota técnica, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio comentam que o STF deveria ter se debruçado sobre a questão principal: decidir sobre a constitucionalidade do marco temporal de 22 de julho de 2008, que cria o duplo regime jurídico – o regime geral das Áreas de Preservação Permanente e Reserva Legal e o regime especial, com parâmetros mais flexíveis, das áreas consolidadas em APP e Reserva Legal.
- Februari 27, 2018
Este resumo do CPI/PUC-Rio apresenta um panorama dos canais de distribuição de crédito no Brasil, apontando como estes geram incertezas adicionais para os produtores rurais, e foca nos efeitos do acesso ao financiamento agropecuário em nível municipal.
- Februari 22, 2018
A new model for municipal financing for rooftop solar, via issuance of municipal bonds, has the potential to increase debt availability for rooftop solar project developers and lower rooftop solar costs up to 12% in Indian cities.
- Januari 13, 2018
The Global Landscape of Renewable Energy 2018 report is a concise, accessible summary of finance flows to renewables around the world. The study examines finance flows worldwide in 2013-2016, broken down by technology, financial instrument, and region.
Em nota técnica, pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio analisaram o voto do Ministro do STF Luiz Fux no julgamento das quatro Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade contra o novo Código Florestal. Elas mostram inconsistências no voto e prováveis desdobramentos para a implementação do código caso o entendimento do ministro prevaleça no STF.
A construção de novas usinas hidrelétricas (UHEs) é tema frequente de debates que não se limitam à questão da geração de energia. Este documento resume um estudo que avalia os efeitos locais da construção de usinas hidrelétricas a partir de indicadores como economia local e contas municipais.
- Oktober 31, 2017
Climate Policy Initiative’s 2017 edition of the Global Landscape of Climate Finance updates the most comprehensive assessment of annual climate finance flows with data from 2015 and 2016, providing, for the first time, a five-year trend analysis on the how, where, and from whom finance is flowing toward low-carbon and climate-resilient actions globally.
O principal objetivo deste estudo, desenvolvido por pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio, através do projeto INPUT, é responder sobretudo a questão: O que significa a implementação efetiva do Código Florestal brasileiro se comparado às exigências legais de outros países? Analisando se os outros países possuem limitações ao uso das propriedades rurais, assim como o faz o Código Florestal brasileiro.
O Brasil possui potencial para estimular o uso de energia solar através da geração distribuída, que consiste na geração de energia na própria unidade de consumo. Neste novo estudo, pesquisadores do CPI analisam mais de cinco mil municípios do Brasil e mostram que fatores da demanda estimulam a penetração de geração fotovoltaica distribuída.
- September 20, 2017
- September 19, 2017
A fund that blends commercial and catalytic finance to invest growth equity in companies to accelerate the diffusion of climate intelligence products and resilience building solutions
Um instrumento para empacotar e securitizar os fluxos de caixa de projetos de energia renovável e vender ações nos mercados de capitais locais, fornecendo financiamento de longo prazo para projetos no Brasil
Supporting National Development Banks to Drive Investment in the Nationally Determined Contributions of Brazil, Mexico, and ChileSeptember 18, 2017
The Paris Agreement combats climate change through country-defined sustainable development plans, aiming to align financing flows with low-carbon climate resilient growth. National development banks and local financial institutions can play key roles in providing climate financing and supporting implementation of these plans.
- September 18, 2017
The new Energizing Finance report series reveals that current flow of finance for energy access and clean cooking will not achieve global goals for delivering universal access by 2030. Yet the data also shows that by scaling and refining finance strategies, we can reach more people, more affordably, with sustainable energy.
Pesquisadoras do CPI questionam número divulgado por estudo sobre áreas ‘anistiadas’ pelo novo Código Florestal.
- Agustus 21, 2017
The analysts observe that the rise of flex cars is a key channel for improving consumer benefits and should be taken into consideration by policymakers, especially when they consider expanding production and markets for alternative fuels, such as hydrogen and electricity.
Pesquisadoras do CPI/PUC-Rio, através do projeto INPUT, analisaram as alternativas para compensação de Reserva Legal, ressaltando as vantagens e desvantagens inerentes a cada modalidade
A partir de uma análise de dados, pesquisadores do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, realizaram um estudo que busca interpretar o crescimento da vegetação secundária da Amazônia brasileira.
Mais certeza sobre os direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural pode beneficiar todo o país. Entenda o porquê neste infográfico produzido pelo CPI.
- Juni 6, 2017
Este estudo fornece uma visão aprofundada da evolução dos direitos fundiários no Brasil e do caminho histórico que influenciou a situação complexa atual. O problema da insegurança dos direitos de propriedade é bastante multifacetado e é difícil para tomadores de decisão decidirem por onde começar as mudanças. Este relatório identifica os principais problemas e mapeia recomendações sobre o tema.
Melhorar a Produtividade Agrícola Brasileira é um Passo Importante Para a Mitigação das Mudanças Climáticas
O potencial de conciliação do aumento da produção agrícola com a conservação ambiental é mais do que uma possibilidade teórica. São apresentados quatro exemplos em que grandes transformações na agricultura realmente promoveram ganhos de rendimento, sem aumentar o desmatamento – a adaptação da soja ao cerrado, a eletrificação rural, a expansão recente da cana-de-açúcar e mudanças nos preços relativos das lavouras em relação à carne bovina.
- Mei 22, 2017
This study identifies productivity shocks using the expansion of rural electrification in Brazil during 1960-2000. The analysis shows that electrification increased crop productivity, and farmers subsequently both expand farming through frontier land conversion, but also shift away from cattle ranching and into crop cultivation.
Neste documento, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio analisam os principais entraves para a utilização da conversão de multa ambiental em prestação de serviços ambientais e propõem recomendações a serem adotadas pelo Poder Executivo para a sua efetiva implementação. Por fim, discutem a adoção desse mecanismo através do Código Florestal
- Charith Konda, Kuldeep Sharma and Gireesh ShrimaliApril 5, 2017
Complete decarbonization of the electricity demand of Indian Railways (IR) – transitioning from the current, largely fossil-fuel based energy mix to clean energy like solar and wind power – is likely to have multiple benefits. These include support in achieving India’s clean energy targets, enhancing India’s energy security, and reducing IR’s operational costs.
- Jane WilkinsonApril 4, 2017
This brief compiles and summarizes lessons from CPI analysis and projects from 2015 and 2016 on how governments and public finance institutions can work together with each other and the private sector to effectively and efficiently reduce the risks and costs of projects in order to attract green investment.
- Maret 14, 2017
This report analyses international financial institutions’ energy portfolios, identifies best practices, and develops an innovative methodological approach to show these organizations how they can adjust their approach to deliver on their mandates to increase economic productivity and meet environmental and social objectives while lowering energy use from fossil fuel sources at least cost.
- Januari 30, 2017
This study identifies domestic and international public finance that limited deforestation and encouraged sustainable land use in Côte d’Ivoire in 2015. It provides a baseline against which to measure progress towards the levels of investment required to meet government goals for sustainable agriculture and reforestation. It also identifies opportunities to increase finance available for implementation of its National REDD+ Strategy. For example, greening the hundreds of billions of West African CFA francs (FCFA) spent annually on business-as-usual agriculture in the country could increase productivity without sacrificing the country’s forests.
- Vivek Sen, Kuldeep Sharma and Gireesh ShrimaliDesember 21, 2016
India has ambitious renewable energy targets of 175GW by 2022. In order to meet this target, the renewable energy sector in India will require $189 billion in additional investment, including $57 billion in equity, and $132 billion in debt. The potential amount of investment in the renewable energy sector in India is more than double the investment required. However, the amount of investment expected falls short of the investment required, by 29% for equity and 27% for debt. Institutional investors show significant potential to help fill this financing gap.
Com ênfase neste foco em desmatamento em pequena escala, que muitas vezes é feito diretamente por agricultores e criadores de gado, pesquisadores do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, analisaram uma questão crucial: os assentamentos contribuem para o desmatamento?
This report offers a strategic guide for cities in developing countries to access finance from green bonds, a potential source of finance for cities in developing countries looking to secure investment in low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure to meet the water, energy, housing and transportation needs of their expanding urban populations.
- David Nelson, Brian O'Connell, Luca De Lorenzo and Matthew HuxhamDesember 6, 2016
Panorama dos Direitos de Propriedade no Brasil Rural: Legislação, Gestão Fundiária e Código FlorestalNovember 9, 2016
Os problemas fundiários no Brasil são tão velhos quanto nossa própria história. Até os dias de hoje, milhares de imóveis rurais estão em situação irregular, muitos agricultores não possuem títulos de propriedade e há espaços onde não é possível afirmar com certeza quem possui os direitos de propriedade sobre a terra. No Brasil, há vários municípios com áreas registradas que superam em uma, duas ou mais vezes a sua superfície territorial.
- Labanya Prakash Jena, Vinit Atal, Gireesh Shrimali and Vivek SenOktober 25, 2016
On October 25, 2016 the the India Lab announced endorsement of three innovative investment vehicles that will help drive millions of dollars of needed investment to India’s clean energy and green growth targets.
Penggunaan Data untuk Mengoptimalisasikan Sumber Daya Lahan Indonesia: Sebuah Pandangan pada Penilaian Modal Sumber Daya Alam
Tekanan pada lahan dan sumber daya Indonesia terhubung dengan pertanyaan apakah mungkin terdapat peluang untuk meminimalkan barter antara sosial dan ekonomi dalam penggunaan lahan.
- Oktober 14, 2016
Secara keseluruhan, kajian ini mengungkapkan bahwa Kalimantan Tengah memiliki kawasan bernilai konservasi tinggi (selanjutnya disingkat NKT) yang signifikan, mencakup lebih dari separuh wilayah provinsi. Hampir dua pertiga dari kawasan NKT di Kalimantan Tengah dalam bahaya akibat berbagai kegiatan pembangunan yang direncanakan.
Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Land Use in Mozambique: Taxes, Financing, and Infrastructure
Researchers at Climate Policy Initiative—as part of the New Climate Economy project—examined the challenges and opportunities for investing in agriculture and natural resources management, with the goal of laying out next steps toward more efficient and sustainable land use in Mozambique. Focusing on low-cost policy modifications, we found four ways to improve agricultural productivity and natural resource management.
- Vivek Sen, Vaibhav Pratap Singh and Gireesh ShrimaliSeptember 30, 2016
A class of bonds to drive impact investment to sustainable energy in India by offering debt exposure, sufficient returns, and standardized impact measures
- September 30, 2016
An innovative options mechanism to dramatically reduce risk and drive large amounts of private institutional investment into early-stage renewable energy development in emerging markets
A new asset facility to back a global fleet of moveable, megawatt-scale solar farms and aims to deploy 10 MW of solar power in the first year
A business model to provide resources and technical assistance to intensify and increase cattle production in Brazil, while also restoring degraded pastures and forests, and decreasing deforestation
An instrument to finance distributed renewable energy systems in agricultural and transport cooperatives, which can help Brazil increase its share of renewables in its power supply and mitigate its carbon emissions
- Labanya Prakash Jena, Jolly Sinha and Gireesh ShrimaliSeptember 30, 2016
A platform to drive needed private capital to sustainable urbanization projects in India by connecting investors and municipalities with a pipeline of investment opportunities
- Federico Mazza, James Falzon and Barbara BuchnerSeptember 29, 2016
Since 2011, CPI’s Global Landscape of Climate Finance has become a benchmark for information about how finance is flowing from actors and sources, toward low-carbon and climate-resilient activities. CPI has reviewed climate finance flows for the years 2013 and 2014.
- September 7, 2016
In order to expand the rooftop solar industry in India, there is a need to develop policy solutions, business models, and financing instruments which can address these barriers. One promising solution to manage these barriers is the third party financing model. However, the third party financing model would first need to overcome certain challenges. This report explores the driving factors and challenges to the third party financing model, and proposes a series of recommendations for policy changes and financial instruments which could address these challenges.
Este relatório coloca em evidência importantes custos sociais, econômicos e ambientais associados à falta de definição de direitos de propriedade, ao mesmo tempo em que apresenta diversas complexidades no sistema de governança fundiária brasileira.
Apesar da importância de Matopiba para a economia brasileira, o impacto e a dimensão dessa intensificação da agricultura ainda não foram estudados a fundo. O estudo mostra, por exemplo, que a expansão agrícola no Matopiba é altamente concentrada em municípios localizados no Cerrado.
One key sector of the Indian economy that could set a strategic example for decarbonization and meeting India’s 2030 targets under the Paris Agreement is the rail transport system, and specifically Indian Railways (IR), India’s national railway service. In this report, we have identified different potential pathways to decarbonization of IR by 2030 and examined their cost-effectiveness and feasibility.
- Juli 22, 2016
Este documento traz dados importantes sobre o alcance e o impacto da expansão das usinas de cana-de-açúcar sobre o uso da terra, crescimento econômico, demografia, mercado de trabalho e serviços financeiros em municípios do Mato Grosso do Sul.
Se há um consenso de que a infraestrutura de transportes é falha, qual é o obstáculo impedindo investimentos no setor? Nesta análise, investiga-se como a regulamentação deste mercado pode ser a responsável pelo problema. No Brasil, investimentos bem-sucedidos e operações de infraestrutura de transporte dependem da cooperação dos setores público e privado.
Nesta publicação, pesquisadores do CPI/PUC-Rio, através do projeto INPUT, mostram de que maneira a associação entre o Crédito Rural e o Código Florestal pode ser aperfeiçoada e colocada em prática já em 2017, através do Plano Agrícola e Pecuário e do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf).
A private equity fund that relies on donor-backed equity capital, technical assistance, and risk mitigation instruments to crowd in private investment in energy efficiency
- Juni 27, 2016
On 27 June 2016 in London, Lab Advisors and Principals met to review 2015-2016 instruments, endorse their technical design, and indicate future backing. Principals endorsed four pilot-ready instruments to unlock investment in climate adaptation and mitigation in developing countries.
- Chiara Trabacchi, Jessica Brown, Rodney Boyd, David Wang and James FalzonJuni 3, 2016
This study’s primary aim is to identify if and where the CIF business model adds value in the landscape of climate finance and whether the CIF holds a comparative advantage in supporting climate-relevant investment needs compared to other multilateral climate funds.
The purpose of this paper is to assess how the nature of property rights in Brazil will affect the implementation of the Forest Code and the realization of the potential positive environmental impacts. This paper analyzes the historical evolution of property rights in Brazil, and it examines how the institutional structure of administering property rights affects the incentives and behavior for property owners.
Driving Foreign Investment to Renewable Energy in India: A Payment Security Mechanism to Address Off-Taker Risk
As India prepares to meet its increasing energy demands, which will likely double by 2030, the government has set a path towards ambitious renewable energy targets of …
- Andrew Goggins and David NelsonMaret 22, 2016
This paper helps policymakers and stakeholders better understand how issues around climate related policies affect national budgets. It also offers suggestions about how policymakers and stakeholders can develop appropriate strategies.
Esta nota técnica do CPI/PUC-Rio, faz uma análise das principais questões estabelecidas pela Resolução Conjunta SMA/SAA no 1/2016, a fim de colaborar com o debate sobre a interpretação e implementação das regras do PRA no Estado de São Paulo.
- Angela Falconer and Skye GlendayFebruari 2, 2016
This paper discusses the role of international development partners in financing mitigation and adaptation actions in the land use sectors in Indonesia. We evaluate what progress has been made to date, what challenges have been met, and what opportunities lie ahead to effectively support Indonesia, reflecting on the value add that development partners bring to the domestic picture.
Climate Policy Initiative telah menerbitkan dua kajian awal yang melihat peluang bagi pemerintah untuk mendorong penggunaan lahan yang efisien dengan cara menyesuaikan kebijakan fiskal Indonesia.
These step-by-step flowcharts show how to navigate the Brazilian Forest Code and identify where potential problems may arise. They also illustrate how the environmental compliance process may differ at the state level from the process described in the Forest Code, another challenge for implementation and compliance.
- Morgan Hervé-Mignucci, Xueying Wang, David Nelson and Uday VaradarajanDesember 15, 2015
CPI examines the financing of Chinese coal power plants, beginning with an overview of the current state of the coal power sector, with the aim of exploring financing levers which could optimize electric power growth while also greening the system.
Getting the most from your green: An approach to using public money effectively through green banks and other low-carbon financingJeff Deason, Uday Varadarajan and Patricia LeviDesember 8, 2015
This document addresses the effective uses of public financial interventions for low carbon projects. It provides an overview of Climate Policy Initiative’s (CPI’s) approach
to determining the most efficient ways in which green banking and other public financial interventions could support the transition to a low-carbon economy.
- Anshuman Sahoo, David Nelson and Andrew GogginsDesember 8, 2015
Rapidly developing nations face particular challenges in meeting their infrastructure investment needs. In this project, we explore the infrastructure investment models that India and Brazil have used to address them.
Para que o novo Código Florestal seja implementado, é necessário que os estados editem regras próprias, incorporando as inovações na legislação estadual. O conjunto destas normas deve, ainda, ser aplicado pelos estados e municípios. Além disso, proprietários e possuidores rurais devem compreender a legislação, cumprir com seus requisitos e ter a iniciativa de regularizar seus imóveis. Para enfrentar estes desafios, pesquisadores do Núcleo de Avaliação de Políticas Climáticas da PUC-Rio/ Climate Policy Initiative, no âmbito do projeto INPUT, criaram uma série de resumos para política pública.
This analysis, produced by researchers at CPI/PUC-Rio, is the first in a series that seeks to clarify the Forest Code in hopes of accelerating implementation and ensuring its success. This document aims at providing an overview of the code and its instruments.
China has grown into a major provider of coal power finance in overseas markets
- November 20, 2015
This study advances understanding of how to assess publicly-mobilized private investment in climate resilience by developing, testing and evaluating a range of methodological options to estimate the amount of private finance mobilized by developed countries’ public finance interventions for climate adaptation in developing countries.
- Barbara Buchner, Chiara Trabacchi, Federico Mazza, Dario Abramskiehn and David WangNovember 16, 2015
The amount of climate finance invested around the world in 2014 increased by 18% over the previous year from USD 331 billion to an estimated USD 391 billion.
Central Kalimantan’s Oil Palm Value Chain: Opportunities for Productivity, Profitability and Sustainability GainsNovember 16, 2015
This working paper provides a first overview of Central Kalimantan’s oil palm value chain and the business actors involved throughout. It aims to identify how business investment can be optimized to support socially inclusive development, delivering productivity, profitability, and sustainability gains.
- Oktober 7, 2015
With the aim of informing the international discussions and enhancing transparency on climate finance ahead of the UNFCCC 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, the current and incoming COP Presidencies, Peru and France, asked the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in collaboration with CPI to provide an up-to-date aggregate estimate of mobilized climate finance and an indication of the progress towards the UNFCCC climate finance goal.
Few studies examine how technical assistance may help mobilize additional public and private climate finance to help developing countries mitigate and adapt to climate change. This paper aims to provide some first insights on the topic by analyzing five technical assistance programs of the German ‘Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), one of the largest technical assistance agencies worldwide.
Increasing global demand for food and the need to address climate change risk make it ever more urgent to both protect ecosystems and use land more productively and efficiently. Brazil is a key player in this context and has made significant gains in recent decades. Between 1970 and 2006, its average national cattle farm productivity doubled and its average national crop farm productivity quadrupled. More recently, the country’s conservation efforts have been successful in reducing the rate of Amazon forest clearings to its lowest level in 30 years.
What Counts: Tools to Help Define and Understand Progress Towards the $100 Billion Climate Finance CommitmentAgustus 31, 2015
This paper aims to make a positive contribution in the lead up to Paris by first unpacking the key variables Parties have emphasized in debates about “what counts” towards the $100bn climate finance goal, and then proposing an approach to classifying climate finance that Parties could use as a starting point for their analyses and interpretations. It takes no position on what should count: instead it organizes different aspects of climate finance in politically relevant ways that could help facilitate clearer understanding and convergence.
This report provides recommendations on the design and distribution of policymakers and development finance institutions’ policy and financing tools to enable fast and cost-effective deployment of geothermal in developing countries. It draws lessons from case studies of geothermal projects with different public, private and mixed development models in Turkey, Kenya and Indonesia.
- Dario Abramskiehn, David Wang and Barbara BuchnerAgustus 20, 2015
Climate change has financial implications for investors – presenting significant portfolio risks as well as new market opportunities. This paper explores the landscape of climate exposure and examines the strengths as well as some of the current limitations of ESG data, tools, and financial products.
- Agustus 17, 2015
Entre 2004 e 2012, houve redução de quase 80% da taxa anual de desmatamento na Amazônia brasileira, em grande parte devido a políticas de combate ao desmatamento introduzidas a partir de 2004. Ainda que isso seja uma boa notícia para aqueles determinados a proteger a floresta, o país agora enfrenta um novo desafio: atualmente, o desmatamento ocorre em pequenos incrementos, mais difíceis de detectar e, portanto, de combater.
This paper from CPI/PUC-Rio reaserch team, studies the impact of technological change in agriculture on land use in Central Brazil from 1960 to 1985. It explores technological innovations that adapted soybeans to the region to estimate the effect of these innovations on land use. Following the technological innovations, municipalities more suitable for soybean cultivation experienced increases in cropland and decreases in native pastures.
This paper from CPI/PUC-Rio reaserch team, examines the impact of changes in agricultural land use on deforestation at the local level in the Tapajós basin in the Brazilian Amazon. We use exogenous variation in crop to beef relative prices to investigate the effects of pasture to crop conversion on deforestation. Our findings indicate that increases in crop to beef relative prices increase the rate of pasture to crop conversion.
Risk Mitigation Instruments for Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Hydropower in Africa
This study examines the effectiveness of risk mitigation instruments used in a Ugandan hydropower project in driving investment and reducing costs and examines how these instruments might be used to drive private investment in other renewable energy projects in developing countries with high investment risks. The project is one of very few to make simultaneous use of different risk mitigation instruments provided by the World Bank Group.
- Juli 13, 2015
This study presents three tools for governments and their partners to use to inform the design of efficient and effective land use mitigation and adaptation strategies supported by multilateral and bilateral programs, to identify domestic and international financial instruments that can redirect public and private finance towards greener land-use practices, and to encourage coordination between public instruments across land-use sectors.
India has ambitious renewable energy targets for 2022, but because of the government’s limited budget, a cost-effective policy path is crucial to achieving those targets. Achieving India’s renewable energy targets cost-effectively faces two key barriers – a shortage of debt and inferior terms of debt.
Studi kasus ini menganalisa PLTP Sarulla, yang mana apabila
berhasil akan menjadi proyek pembangkit listrik
tenaga panas bumi terbesar di dunia dengan total
kapasitas sebesar 330MW di tahun 2018.
This working paper provides emerging insights from the experience of seven Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) in driving private sector investment in climate resilience.
Achieving a high-productivity, sustainable palm oil sector in Indonesia: a landscape management approach
A growing number of government, business and civil society, including Unilever and IDH, have a goal of transforming the Indonesian rural economy by 2020, to deliver net positive environmental impacts and improve smallholder farmer livelihoods. This requires a focus on transforming the oil palm sector from being a driver of deforestation, to one that is highly productive and sustainable.
- Valerio Micale, Chiara Trabacchi and Leonardo BoniJuni 2, 2015
This case study looks at Olkaria III, the first privately funded and developed geothermal project in Africa to understand how the Kenyan government and international public finance are working together to attract private investment in geothermal.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Charith Konda, Arsalan Ali Farooquee and David NelsonMei 13, 2015
The Government of India has set ambitious renewable energy targets for 2022, in order to achieve its climate goals and enhance energy security. Given India’s budget constraints, a cost-effective policy path will be crucial to achieving these targets. One way to reduce the cost of government support needed to achieve its renewable energy targets is through the tariffs it uses to procure renewable energy.
Peluang untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas dan Profitabilitas Petani Kecil Kelapa Sawit di Kalimantan Tengah
Petani kecil merupakan bagian penting dari gambaran ini. Saat ini di Kalimantan Tengah diestimasi bahwa15% dari keseluruhan lahan perkebunan kelapa sawit dikelola oleh petani kecil.
- April 22, 2015
In April 2015, Lab members, who include high-level experts from public and private institutions, endorsed the launch of the pilot initiatives after a year-long process supported by rigorous analysis to determine which instruments showed the most promise. The initiatives have collectively raised over USD 100 million in initial funding, with more expected to follow through an ongoing process that will draw on expertise and resources of additional Lab member institutions, as well as other private and public stakeholders. The Phase 3 Instrument reports summarize analysis conducted by Climate Policy Initiative, as Lab Secretariat, to refine these initiatives and outline concrete implementation pathways.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Sandhya Srinivasan, Shobhit Goel, Saurabh Trivedi and David NelsonApril 14, 2015
The Government of India has ambitious renewable energy targets, but limited financial resources to meet those targets. CPI examines how much it would cost the government to reach its renewable energy targets, by comparing the levelized cost of electricity from renewable energy to a baseline fossil fuel in absence of any subsidies – whether explicit or implicit; estimating the total cost of support for renewable energy under accelerated depreciation, which is the most cost-effective of existing policies; and investigating federal policy options to make this support even more cost-effective.
This report provides the analysis on Climate Investor One, a financing facility for early-stage development, construction financing, and refinancing to fast-track renewable energy projects in developing countries.
Geothermal energy holds significant promise for the development of low-carbon energy systems. One of the lowest cost sources of renewable electricity, it also has the ability to meet baseload power demand and backstop fluctuating …
This analysis, conducted by CPI/PUC-Rio, shows that conservation policies were effective at curbing Amazon deforestation, helping avoid an estimated 73,000 km² of Amazon forest clearings from 2005 through 2009.
Como Melhorar a Produtividade Agrícola no Brasil: O Potencial Inexplorado da Política de Risco de PreçosFebruari 25, 2015
Um dos aspectos cruciais para maior eficiência no uso da terra é a gestão do risco agrícola, que inclui proteger agricultores de choques adversos, tais como variações climáticas e pestes, e do risco de preços, causado pela volatilidade dos preços agrícolas.
- November 24, 2014
The Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance is a new, global initiative that draws on expertise from around the world to design and pilot the next generation of cutting edge climate finance instruments.
- Barbara Buchner, Martin Stadelmann, Jane Wilkinson, Federico Mazza, Anja Rosenberg and Dario AbramskiehnNovember 20, 2014
The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2014 found that global climate finance flows fell to USD 331 billion – far below even the most conservative estimates of investment needs.
- Oktober 23, 2014
Geothermal energy is broadly cost competitive with fossil fuel alternatives even without a carbon price. However, its rate of deployment has been slower than other renewables over the last thirty years and will need to speed up rapidly if this technology is to deliver on its promise. In addition, geothermal technologies that can harness lower temperature geothermal resources need to achieve more deployment to bring costs down.
- David Nelson, Morgan Hervé-Mignucci, Andrew Goggins, Sarah Jo Szambelan and Julia ZuckermanOktober 8, 2014
With the right policies, the transition to a low-carbon energy system consistent with avoiding the most damaging effects of climate change could free up trillions of dollars over the next 20 years to invest in better economic growth.
Em 2007, 36 municípios brasileiros eram responsáveis por 45% do desmatamento no Bioma Amazônia – um número impressionante se levado em conta que 547 municípios brasileiros têm interseção com o Bioma Amazônia. Em 2008, o Ministério do Meio Ambiente criou uma lista com esses 36 municípios, chamando-os de Municípios Prioritários (MPs) para o combate e a prevenção ao Desmatamento.
San Giorgio Group Brief: Early Lessons on Introducing Energy Performance Contracts in Italy - Milan's Energy Efficiency ProgramValerio Micale, Jeff Deason and Morgan Hervé-MignucciSeptember 3, 2014
Governments around the world use energy performance contracts (EPCs) with energy service companies (ESCOs) to reduce the energy costs and carbon emissions of public buildings without any budget outlay on their part. This brief draws lessons from the first program of this kind in Italy to cover energy savings alone and introduce pure EPC on a regional scale.
San Giorgio Group Brief: How Spain created a world-leading CSP industry then shattered investor confidence
Part of a series looking at the role of public finance in driving concentrated solar power (CSP) deployment and cost reductions, this report draws lessons from Spanish support policies which drove the creation of a world-leading industry and then shattered investor confidence through retroactive changes.
This brief explains CPI’s understanding and definition of key climate finance terms and the reasons for these definitions to inform the debate and build a common understanding among stakeholders.
- Juli 23, 2014
Indonesia’s desire to drive economic growth and reduce climate risk is reflected in the sweeping policy reforms it has introduced in recent years to meet targets announced in 2009 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this report, CPI identifies which public actors are investing in Indonesia, through which instruments, and what they are investing in to provide a baseline against which to measure progress and plan scale up. This mapping exercise reveals investment patterns that allow decision makers to pinpoint where the biggest barriers and opportunities are.
- Angela Falconer, Anja Rosenberg, Jane Wilkinson and Skye GlendayJuli 23, 2014
Dalam laporan ini kami mengidentikasi para pelaku publik yang berinvestasi di Indonesia, instrumen yang digunakan, dan bentuk investasi yang dilakukan yang kemudian menjadi landasan untuk mengukur progress dan rencana pengembangan.
Getting the most from your green: A case study for using public money effectively for large-scale renewable energy in CaliforniaJeff Deason, Uday Varadarajan and Patricia LeviJuli 1, 2014
This brief illustrates CPI’s approach to identifying effective uses of public financial interventions for low-carbon projects. It presents our analysis of the financial barriers affecting large-scale renewable energy in California.
Cap and Trade in Practice: Barriers and Opportunities for Industrial Emissions Reductions in CaliforniaJulia Zuckerman, Karen Laughlin, Dario Abramskiehn and Xueying WangJuli 1, 2014
California is both one of the largest economies and one of the largest emitters globally, making its climate change policies some of the most important in the world. They are also some of the most ambitious. In particular, California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32) set a series of policies and programs across all major business sectors to return California emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. A key component of this set of policies is the Cap and Trade Program…
Quando comparado com outros países, os mercados de aluguel de terras no Brasil parecem pouco desenvolvidos. Somente 3,3% dos terrenos cultivados no país estava sob acordos de arrendamento ou parceria no último Censo Agropecuário. Em comparação, este número sobe para 33% na Europa e chega a quase 38% nos Estados Unidos…
- Martin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari and Anja RosenbergJuni 23, 2014
This study shows that if international finance institutions (IFIs) and committed national governments were to join forces to deploy 5-15GW of concentrated solar power (CSP), it could reduce its electricity production costs by around 14-44% and make CSP competitive in countries like Morocco and South Africa. With findings drawn from four case studies and background paper, this policy brief offers recommendations for IFIs and developing country policymakers on how to make this happen in the most cost-effective way.
Electricity systems across the U.S. and Europe face significant challenges in the transition to low-carbon energy. While the transition provides plenty of opportunities for investors, businesses, and consumers alike, the current business and regulatory models of investor owned utilities (IOUs) and independent power producers (IPPs), which have mainly developed around competitive markets for fossil fuel generation, are particularly ill-suited to take advantage of these new opportunities.
- Rodney Boyd, Anja Rosenberg and Andrew HobbsJuni 13, 2014
The 100 MW Eskom CSP power tower plant being developed in Upington by Eskom, South Africa’s state-owned electricity utility, is one of the most technically challenging of its kind under development outside of the US. It brings higher potential for cost reduction, building up local supply chains and promoting energy security than other CSP project currently under development in the country.
Manipulação de Estimativas de Fatores de Capacidade em Contratos de Energia Eólica: Evidências de um Contrato com Tarifa Feed-in no Brasil
Apesar do PROINFA ter sido bem sucedido quanto às suas metas de capacidade instalada – de fato, foi responsável por grande parte do crescimento de 29 MW para 2.010 MW em capacidade eólica instalada no Brasil entre 2004 e 2012 – nossa análise sugere que problemas com o desenho dos contratos reduziram o custo-benefício do programa.
- Barbara Buchner, Martin Stadelmann and Jane WilkinsonApril 29, 2014
This brief presents findings from a project that aims to support the Green Climate Fund in its design and operationalization of an innovative and effective Private Sector Facility. It was carried out in close partnership with the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment.
Solving India’s Renewable Energy Financing Challenge: Instruments to Provide Low-cost, Long-term DebtGireesh Shrimali, Charith Konda and Sandhya SrinivasanApril 21, 2014
In this paper, we explore financing instruments, used in other regions as well as those that were recently introduced in India in other contexts that have the potential to provide and/or facilitate low-cost, long-term debt for renewable energy in India.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Shobhit Goel, Sandhya Srinivasan and David NelsonMaret 24, 2014
The Government of India has set ambitious targets for renewable energy — a doubling of existing renewable energy capacity to 55,000 MW by 2017. However, unsubsidized renewable energy is still 52-129% more expensive than conventional power, and requires policy support.
San Giorgio Group Case Study: The Role of Public Finance in CSP - Rajasthan Sun Technique 100MW CSP plant, IndiaMartin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari and Charith KondaMaret 10, 2014
The 100MW Rajasthan Sun Technique CSP plant is not only the first linear Fresnel CSP plant in India and the largest in the world, it is also one of the cheapest large-scale CSP plants ever built. This case study finds that while Indian solar policy was essential to build this innovative plant it was not enough for India to deploy CSP plants at the desired level and speed.
- David Nelson and Gireesh ShrimaliJanuari 20, 2014
Renewable energy financing in emerging economies faces particularly daunting challenges, but there are creative policy solutions that could potentially reduce the cost of renewable energy support by as much as 30%.
San Giorgio Group Brief: The Role of Public Finance in CSP - Background and Approach to Measuring EffectivenessMartin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari, Rodney Boyd and Jacobo FeásJanuari 17, 2014
Many experts and international institutions expect concentrated solar power (CSP) to supply up to 10% of global energy demand by 2050. However, today CSP’s costs remain above alternative sources of power and public finance is needed to bridge this gap: over 98% of the total investment in CSP to date has needed some form of public support. This brief, the first in series of reports on CSP, looks at the global landscape of CSP in terms of markets, technology, financing models, and policies to better understand how to structure effective and cost-effective public policies and investments.
- Sangeetha Chandrashekeran, Julia Zuckerman and Jeff DeasonJanuari 14, 2014
California has long been a leader in energy efficiency policy among U.S. states, and the Risk-Reward Incentive Mechanism (RRIM) represents a large-scale policy experiment that holds lessons for other jurisdictions dealing with energy efficiency policy design, especially those considering shareholder incentives. Our evaluation of the RRIM contributes to the debate on the effectiveness of shareholder incentives, providing insights on how program design choices and institutional dynamics contribute to policy outcomes.
In this San Giorgio Group Case Study, Climate Policy Initiative studies the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience to highlight early lessons from a project engaging private actors in building the resilience of Nepal’s agricultural sector. The overarching goal of this project is to establish models for climate-smart agriculture that make climate resilience a business proposition for the private actors involved, long beyond the project’s life.
- Desember 3, 2013
Nossa análise sugere que, dentro de um arcabouço de P&P, há ampla margem para melhorar a proteção dos recursos naturais e aumentar a produção agropecuária no Brasil. O país se beneficiaria do desenvolvimento de mecanismos que aumentem o custo privado de desmatar, assim como da adoção de incentivos de mercado que promovam práticas sustentáveis. Há também espaço para promover o crescimento da agropecuária brasileira através de ganhos de produtividade, sem que haja comprometimento da conservação ambiental.
Emissions from deforestation and forest degradation make up nearly one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions and the estimated costs of halving emissions from deforestation and forest degradation by 2030 far exceed available public resources. This case study analyzes the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership project in Indonesia to see what it can teach policymakers and investors about rehabilitating degraded peatland effectively, and what barriers need to be overcome to attract private investment at scale.
- November 7, 2013
O Plantio Direto (PD), um método de produção que minimiza o uso do arado, é um dos maiores avanços das últimas décadas em tecnologia agrícola. Fazendeiros que adotam o PD apresentam melhores resultados e menor custo quando comparados às técnicas tradicionais, e diminuem as emissões de gás carbônico na atmosfera – resultados que beneficiam tanto os próprios fazendeiros quanto o clima. A adoção do PD não demanda custos iniciais significativos, e a colheita é menos sujeita a variações. Todavia, os níveis de adoção continuam extremamente baixos cerca de quarenta anos após a introdução do sistema no Sul do país, em 1971.
- Oktober 22, 2013
The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2013, found that global climate finance flows plateaued at USD 359 billion, or around USD 1 billion per day – far below even the most conservative estimates of investment needs.
- Valerio Micale, Gianleo Frisari and Federico MazzaSeptember 26, 2013
In this study, CPI provides an overview of general risk coverage offered through the WBG’s various member institutions, potential gaps compared to existing demand, and trends of risk coverage commitments for climate change.
CPI describes how a combination of public policies and financial instruments, and robust private risk management measures mobilized EUR 360 million of private investment in Scandinavian Europe’s largest windfarm, delivering power to 100,000 homes.
The Role of Development Finance Institutions and Development Banks in Scaling Up Green and Climate InvestmentsBarbara Buchner, Chiara Trabacchi, Claire Painter and Jane WilkinsonSeptember 4, 2013
Drawing on analysis carried out by CPI, representatives of these organizations agreed to collaborate more closely on priority issues, such as driving more private investment, reducing perceived and actual investment risk, changing investment policies to move away from fossil-fuel projects, and creating more transparency on financial flows and best practice.
- Andrew Hobbs, Elinor Benami, Uday Varadarajan and Brendan PierpontJuli 25, 2013
Most homeowners in California are no longer purchasing the panels on their rooftops, they are leasing them. Over 75% of California’s new residential solar systems in 2012 were leased as compared to less than 10% in 2007. As policymakers across the country and elsewhere look to spur further growth of solar PV in a constrained budget environment, the California experience — and in particular, the rise of leasing — may hold lessons for improving the effectiveness of solar policy generally.
Penggunaan Data untuk Mengoptimalisasikan Sumber Daya Lahan Indonesia: Sebuah Pandangan pada Penilaian Modal Sumber Daya Alam
Tekanan pada lahan dan sumber daya Indonesia terhubung dengan pertanyaan apakah mungkin terdapat peluang untuk meminimalkan barter antara sosial dan ekonomi dalam penggunaan lahan.
California policymakers are considering how to allocate Proposition 39 funds — an estimated $2.75 billion over five years — to support energy efficiency and clean energy projects in K-12 schools and other public buildings. Proposition 39 presents a substantial opportunity to help school districts save energy and money. In order to inform the ongoing discussion, Climate Policy Initiative analyzed existing resources and gaps in financing for energy-saving projects in K-12 school districts.
A Amazônia é a maior floresta tropical do mundo. No Brasil, a floresta originalmente ocupava mais de quatro milhões de quilômetros quadrados – uma área equivalente a quase metade da Europa continental.
In The Policy Climate, we offer an overview of policy issues relevant to climate change across the world. We find that the implementation of policy relevant to climate change, and its impact, accelerated markedly over the last decade, despite the slow pace of international climate negotiations.
- April 9, 2013
This report compares energy efficiency policy in buildings in China, Germany, and the United States, providing the context for, and describing, policies in these three countries in order to lay the groundwork for future review of policy effectiveness.
- Maret 27, 2013
National Development Banks (NDBs) can play a big role in climate finance. In many cases, they already are: In CPI’s most recent estimate, NDBs, together with bilateral financial institutions, raised and channeled USD 54 billion in 2010/2011 to renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other climate-related measures.
- David Nelson and Brendan PierpontMaret 7, 2013
Institutional investors, which together manage assets of over $70 trillion, often have investment objectives that are aligned with the investment profile of infrastructure. At first glance, access to this large pool of capital and the alignment of objectives should help lower the costs of financing renewable energy. In this study, CPI finds that while these investors could supply a significant share of the total required investment, various factors limit the extent to which they can invest in a way that could lower the cost of financing renewable energy. Furthermore, financial regulation of institutional investors, regulation of energy markets, and renewable energy policy, often create additional obstacles to renewable energy investment.
Crédito Afeta Desmatamento? Analisa de perto uma dessas políticas, resolução 3,545, que impôs condições a fazendeiros que procuram concessões de credito rural no Bioma da Amazônia Brasileira. Nossa análise sugere que a resolução 3,545 ajudou a controlar o desmatamento na Amazônia Brasileira.
- Gianleo Frisari, Morgan Hervé-Mignucci, Valerio Micale and Federico MazzaJanuari 21, 2013
Risk — whether real or perceived — is the single most important factor preventing renewable energy projects from finding financial investors, or raising the returns that these investors demand. It is also one thing that policymakers can cause, control, alleviate, or help mitigate. In a series of three studies, titled Risk Gaps, CPI maps the availability of risk instruments against demand and analyzes several new, potential instruments designed to address the biggest gaps: first-loss protection instruments and policy risk insurance.
- Desember 11, 2012
Overall, while policies and public resources are affecting the performance of investments in ways consistent with low carbon growth, more action is required to help private actors overcome real and perceived risks — in developing and developed markets — and deliver green investments at large scale.
- David Nelson, Gireesh Shrimali, Shobhit Goel, Charith Konda and Raj KumarDesember 5, 2012
The cost and terms of the debt available in India to finance wind and solar projects is a major problem, increasing the cost of renewable energy by up to a third compared to similar projects in the U.S. and Europe.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Sumala Tirumalachetty and David NelsonDesember 5, 2012
We evaluate the effectiveness of Indian REC markets against eight government objectives and find that this program is not likely to achieve government objectives.
- Barbara Buchner, Angela Falconer, Morgan Hervé-Mignucci and Chiara TrabacchiDesember 3, 2012
Global annual investment to curb climate change reached approximately USD 364 billion in 2010/2011. This amount, while significant, falls short of most estimates of investment needed to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius.
- November 30, 2012
By compiling data from a wide range of sources, we create the most comprehensive snapshot to-date of the current state of German climate finance. Our research suggests that EUR 37 billion, or 1.5% of GDP, was invested in 2010 to support the German transition to a low-carbon economy. The private sector provided more than 95% of this finance.
- November 29, 2012
Als fuehrende Kraft in Europas Entwicklung hin zur schadstoffarmen Gesellschaft hat Deutschland ehrgeizige Ziele für seinen Beitrag zum globalen Kampf gegen den Klimawandel gesetzt. Die Erreichung dieser Ziele erfordert erhebliche Investitionen in erneuerbare Energien, Energieeffizienz und andere Massnahmen zur Verringerung von Treibhausgasemissionen. Mit Hilfe von Daten aus einer Vielzahl von Quellen geben wir in in unserem Bericht den derzeit umfassendsten Ueberblick über den aktuellen Stand der deutschen Klimafinanzierung. Unsere Untersuchungen fuer das Jahr 2010 zeigen, dass 37 Milliarden Euro oder 1,5% des BIP in den Übergangs zu einer kohlenstoffarmen Wirtschaft investiert wurden.
Tracking Emissions and Mitigation Actions: Learning from MRV Systems in China, Germany, Italy, and the United StatesNovember 27, 2012
CPI has engaged in an effort to characterize, evaluate, and draw insights from existing domestic MRV systems for emissions and mitigation actions in four of the major emitters – China, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
This report examines how industrial facilities respond to cap and trade, and shows that the most likely responses will reduce air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions. This is supported by evidence that Europe’s cap and trade system has reduced local air pollution from oil refineries and other industrial facilities.
- Uday Varadarajan, Brendan Pierpont, Andrew Hobbs and Kath RowleySeptember 16, 2012
Renewable energy deployment in the United States is booming. Though this growth was financed largely through private investment, state and federal policies have played a key role. This report shows the federal government could sustain support for wind and solar at much lower cost to taxpayers by replacing current tax credits with cash incentives.
Ouarzazate I is a 160MW Concentrated Solar Power plant in Morocco, generously supported by a subsidy from the Government of Morocco and concessional capital from international development banks. Ouarzazate I only makes economic sense if it contributes to the development of a commercially-sustainable regional Concentrated Solar Power market. Projects like Ouarzazate I play a crucial bridging role but, in order to scale-up projects like these, costs need to fall and revenues need to grow.
- Barbara Buchner, Angela Falconer, Chiara Trabacchi and Jane WilkinsonJuli 18, 2012
This paper examines the M&E systems applied by a selection of eight multilateral and bilateral intermediaries, as well as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change reporting framework. It was originally developed as a background paper for ‘Improving the Effectiveness of Climate Finance: Key Lessons’, a joint study by a consortium of researchers from Environmental Defense Fund, Climate Policy Initiative, Brookings Institution, and Overseas Development Institute on the topic of the effectiveness of climate finance published in November 2011.
To support CPUC in the development of a cost limitation for California’s RPS, Climate Policy Initiative reviewed experience in a number of states with costs limits in renewable energy policies. Our qualitative analysis reveals several general lessons about cost limits and their role in renewable energy policy, and points to recommendations for California.
Walney Offshore Windfarms (WOW) in the U.K., the largest offshore windfarm in the world in 2012, faced financing challenges because of the risks associated with this immature though promising technology and the escalating European debt crisis. Through a combination of U.K. policy support and innovative financial engineering, the project was successful in attracting nontraditional investors including a pension and a private equity fund.
- Chiara Trabacchi, Valerio Micale and Gianleo FrisariJuni 1, 2012
Program Solaire (Prosol) is an incentive program that promotes residential solar water heaters in Tunisia. In the early 2000s, the deployment of solar water heaters remained low due to fossil fuel subsidies. The Tunisian government had attempted to discontinue the fossil fuel subsidies, but a public outcry caused policymakers to abandon this course of action.
- Uday Varadarajan and Julia ZuckermanMaret 28, 2012
This paper puts these programs in the broader context of energy-related activities in the federal budget and provides a starting point for further discussion and analysis of the federal government’s role in energy and climate change. We outline the landscape of federal spending and revenue collection activities that substantially influence energy supply or use in 2010, organized by the type of policy tool or mechanism supported.
Brazilian deforestation rates fell from 27,000 km2 in 2004 to 7,000 km2 at the end of the decade. Results indicate that the conservation policies associated with the policy turning points were effective at curbing Amazon deforestation, helping avoid an estimated 73,000 km2 of Amazon forest clearings from 2005 through 2009. This is equivalent to approximately 2.7 billion tons of stored CO2, which our estimates value at 13.2 billion US dollars.
On October 16th and 17th, 2011, Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) and the World Bank Group, in collaboration with China Light & Power (CLP) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), hosted the inaugural meeting of the San Giorgio Group (SGG).
- November 23, 2011
A joint study by Environmental Defense Fund, Climate Policy Initiative, Brookings Institution, and Overseas Development Institute.
- CPI StaffNovember 1, 2011
This review explores China’s low-carbon development efforts under the 11th FYP period. What drove the decline in energy intensity? How did government actions contribute to this decline? What are the implications of China’s experience for the 12th FYP?
- Uday Varadarajan, David Nelson, Brendan Pierpont and Morgan Hervé-MignucciOktober 1, 2011
CPI studied six large-scale renewable electricity generation projects in the United States and Europe to evaluate how policy affects project economics, as well as the cost and availability of financing.
- Oktober 1, 2011
In this paper, CPI assesses the current status of the climate finance landscape, mapping its magnitude and nature along the life cycle of finance flows, i.e. the sources of finance, intermediaries involved in distribution, financial instruments, and final uses.
Decarbonizing the EU power system involves more than investment in generation and grid – it requires a smart power market as well. A new study led by CPI shows that the current EU power market design does not effectively support European member states’ plan to connect 200GW of wind and solar power to the transmission system by 2020.
Efficiency improvements in the building sector are a key component of the German Energy Concept. The stated objective of the Concept is a 20% reduction in the heat requirement of buildings by 2020, so as to achieve an 80% reduction in the primary energy requirement by 2050. In these CPI reports and briefs, CPI analysis addresses questions emerging from the review of policy instruments and programs focused on this objective.
In this paper, Climate Policy Initiative San Francisco assesses the impact of state energy codes using residential energy use data at the state level. By conducting a regression analysis comparing states with building energy codes to those without, CPI SF measures the realized energy savings of energy codes and compares them to existing estimates based on building simulation models.
- Karsten Neuhoff, Hermann Amecke, Aleksandra Novikova and Kateryna StelmakhAgustus 1, 2011
Die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz im Gebäudesektor steht im Zentrum des Energiekonzepts der Bundesregierung. Dort ist das Ziel festgeschrieben, den Wärmebedarfs um 20% bis 2020 zu reduzieren, um anschließend eine Verringerung des Primärenergiebedarfs um 80% bis 2050 zu erreichen. In den vorliegenden Studien analysiert CPI Fragen zu Politikinstrumenten zur Erreichung dieser Ziele.
- Brendan Pierpont, Uday Varadarajan, David Nelson and Anne SchoppJuli 1, 2011
CPI’s Renewable Energy Finance project assesses the impact of policy on the availability and mix of investment in renewable energy.
- Anja Rosenberg, Anne Schopp, Karsten Neuhoff and Alexander VasaJuni 1, 2011
In this report, CPI studied the impact of four German energy policies and their related exemptions for industry, differentiated by the size of the firm and the industrial sub-sector.
CPI’s assessment of the impact of policy on the financing of clean energy aims to investigate the effectiveness of policy in promoting efficient investment.
CPI’s focus in this project has been on the effectiveness of policy in helping PV reach its technical potential. In this project overview, we address several of the major questions that policymakers face in their effort to make PV more cost competitive.
In this paper, CPI provides an overview of the PV industry and policies in Germany and China, including deployment support, investment support for manufacturing plants, and R&D support measures.
- CPI StaffFebruari 1, 2011
China’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) set a target to reduce energy intensity by 20% from 2005 levels. Climate Policy Initiative’s “Review of Low-Carbon Development in China 2010” discusses China’s energy performance in key sectors, describes the policies and instruments implemented to meet this target, and provides initial insights that may be valuable as China enters its 12th FYP period.
To drive low-carbon investment, policy frameworks must capture companies’ attention, provide clarity for business decisions, and enable low-carbon investment decisions. CPI and Climate Strategies’ recent joint study indicates that the EU ETS contributes to these requirements, but it also suggests that improvements such as increasing stringency, limiting CDM use, changes in international financial reporting standards, and complementary policies are needed.
On the 14th of October 2010, Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) and the International Center for Climate Governance (ICCG) in collaboration with the Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC) hosted a workshop to convene key players in climate finance. The workshop provided a platform for policymakers and experts from research organizations and finance institutions active along the spectrum of public and private finance issues to initiate a concrete dialogue on climate finance.