- November 26, 2020
This CPI study explores crop diversification opportunities to support independent smallholders in Berau for better long-term outcomes
- November 19, 2020
The Energizing Finance: Understanding the Landscape report, developed by Sustainable Energy for All in partnership with Climate Policy Initiative and produced annually since 2017, provides a comprehensive analysis of commitments flowing to the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking.
- November 18, 2020
While challenging, scaling up climate finance ideas is possible, and is greatly facilitated by four success factors that can be influenced by the entrepreneurs developing these initiatives and their stakeholders.
- November 12, 2020
This report proposes a theoretical framework and methodology that can be used to measure and categorize climate finance flows to small-scale agriculture in developing countries. It also provides a snapshot of the current state of climate finance to small-scale agriculture representing international financial commitments in 2017 and 2018.
- November 10, 2020
This report, co-developed by CPI and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), provides actionable recommendations for policy makers and other stakeholders to scale up investment and mobilize capital in the renewable energy sector.
- November 6, 2020
IDFC has conducted regular mapping of its member institutions’ green finance commitments since 2011. Climate Policy Initiative supports this effort by assisting IDFC member institutions filling out the survey, and checks, aggregates, and analyzes the data.
Indeks Desa Membangun Plus (IDM+): Enhancing Direct Incentives for Sustainable Land Use in Indonesian VillagesNovember 5, 2020
This paper proposes a two-part approach for a potentially sweeping, but relatively practical reform to encourage villages across Indonesia to adopt sustainable practices.
This brief, part of the Energizing Finance series, provides an analysis of international finance commitments and disbursements to Sierra Leone – one of the countries worst affected by the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak.
- September 29, 2020
MWS is a novel, collaborative approach to improve economic outcomes for farmers, create resilient supply chains and increase water efficiency by using “pay for performance” to accelerate sustainable agriculture practices in water-stressed regions
- September 29, 2020
The Conexsus Impact Fund is the only fund in Brazil designed to redirect federal subsidized credit (Pronaf) to sustainable production systems and those that keep forests standing.
- September 29, 2020
GROVE: FSL crowdfunds capital for smallscale forestry projects, reduces monitoring costs through remote sensing and machine learning, and increases financial transparency and local community earnings through blockchain-backed smart contracts.
- September 29, 2020
The Sustainable Agriculture Finance Facility provides customized bundled loans that match the farmers’ needs and takes into account specific ICLF parameters.
- Hélène Van Caenegem and Jane ChuSeptember 29, 2020
SnCF is expected to be the first private equity fund to feature a Technical Assistance Facility that provides local government capacity building and certifies all projects for SDG impact prior to investment.
- September 29, 2020
The first instrument to address water scarcity in Southern Africa by streamlining adaptation project financing into a single instrument through a partnership between commercial banks and institutional investors.
- September 29, 2020
GreenStreet Africa develops and aggregates portfolios of distributed solar projects at public health and education facilities for implementation by private IPPs or ESCOs, financed with local capital markets solutions.
- September 11, 2020
Climate Policy Initiative’s Landscape of Green Finance in India presents the most comprehensive information on green investment flows in the country in FY 2017-FY 2018.
- September 1, 2020
Pesquisadoras do CPI/ PUC-Rio fizeram o levantamento e análise dos projetos de lei em tramitação no Congresso Nacional e identificaram que há, atualmente, 56 projetos de lei que pretendem modificar as regras do Código Florestal, dos quais sete podem anular avanços feitos até hoje para a sua implementação.
- August 13, 2020
This report provides an overview of the development of green banking practices in China, identifying major policies and practices, performance to date, as well as barriers to further
- August 10, 2020
This policy brief, analyzes the production line of air conditioning sector in Brazil with a focus on productive and energy efficiency.
- August 4, 2020
This paper focuses on enhancing the role that National Development Banks play in supporting the acceleration of climate-smart urban infrastructure investment.
The Role of Cooperatives in Rural Credit: Cooperative credit grows during the economic crisis and supports the inclusion of small-scale producersJuly 23, 2020
This brief analyze cooperatives’ participation in rural credit, addressing both recent developments and potential challenges
Brazil Needs to Monitor its Tropical Regeneration: Remote Monitoring System is Technologically Feasible, but Needs Public Policy SupportJuly 14, 2020
This paper offers recommendations on how to move forward in developing remote systems to monitor secondary vegetation.
There is a growing need to sensitize India’s financial sector about the importance and benefits of Green Finance, and ways to accelerate green capital flows in India.
This paper explores how green finance in China can go beyond financing assets that are consistent with sustainability goals to fulfill the investment needs required to transform sectors or China’s economy to a more sustainable model.
- June 10, 2020
The Chinese green bond market expanded rapidly from 2016-2019, with more than USD 120 billion of cumulative issuance.
Protected Territories, though Critical, are not enough to Slow Amazon Deforestation: Brazil Requires Coordinated and Targeted Conservation PoliciesMay 26, 2020
Results reinforce the importance of pursuing protection strategies in combination with integrated conservation policy efforts to reduce deforestation throughout the Amazon.
- May 14, 2020
Existing decentralized renewable energy business models fail to address prevailing barriers in the sector, ranging from policy barriers, limited access to finance, and high investment risks, discouraging private investments.
- April 27, 2020
The regulatory framework of a public service agency provides solid legal basis for a robust and flexible vehicle to fund activities for public interest, including managing money from international donors.
- April 9, 2020
This brief outlines the current state of global finance for climate adaptation, and includes potential new data sources and recommendations to improve adaptation finance tracking going forward.
The Impacts of Rural Credit on Agricultural Outcomes and Land Use: An Analysis by Credit Lines, Producer Types and Credit UsesMarch 25, 2020
In this work, Climate Policy Initiative (CPI/PUC-RIO) provides a detailed impact analysis of the Brazilian Rural Credit policy on agricultural production, land use and deforestation.
- março 17, 2020
Pesquisadoras do Climate Policy Initiative/ Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (CPI/ PUC-Rio) fazem análise de relatório legislativo.
- Morgan Richmond and Karoline HallmeyerDecember 20, 2019
In this brief, we set out potential methods to fill data gaps in adaptation tracking in the Landscape and propose methods to measure progress.
Onde estamos na implementação do Código Florestal? Radiografia do CAR e do PRA nos estados brasileiros
Esta publicação do Climate Policy Initiative/ Núcleo de Avaliação de Políticas Climáticas da PUC-Rio (CPI/ NAPC PUC-Rio) traça o panorama do Código Florestal nos estados brasileiros, com uma análise detalhada das regulamentações estaduais, identificando ações que estão em curso nos estados, os avanços alcançados, as principais dificuldades, as lacunas existentes e as principais recomendações para política pública.
The International Development Finance Club (IDFC) is the leading group of 26 national and regional development banks from all over the world, the majority of which are active in emerging markets. During the United Nations Climate Action Summit 2019, IDFC resolved to mobilize significant volumes of financing for meeting climate and development goals.
- November 7, 2019
The 2019 edition of Climate Policy Initiative’s Global Landscape of Climate Finance provides the most comprehensive overview of global climate-related primary investment.
- October 28, 2019
This brief, which is part of CPI’s work on tracking global climate finance flows, proposes a preliminary methodological approach and analytical framework to measure the nature and speed of shifts in private capital in response to climate change.
- October 22, 2019
The Energizing Finance series, developed by SE4All in partnership with CPI, is the first and only in-depth attempt to capture multiple years of data on finance for the two key areas of energy access: electrification and clean cooking.
- October 2, 2019
Lab members voted to endorse all six financial mechanisms and enterprises in the Lab’s 2019 class in a side event to the UN Climate Action Summit, officially launching them for operation, and offering inputs for their implementation pathways.
- September 27, 2019
A securitization which allows solar developers’ to obtain capital to expand their sales, meeting the clean energy access needs of African households
- September 27, 2019
A standardized, digital index crop insurance platform for smallholder farmers that addresses the impacts of climate change on crop production by making insurance more transparent, efficient, and scalable
- Dario Abramskiehn and Morgan RichmondSeptember 27, 2019
A pay-per-service model to decrease energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from cooling systems in cities around the world, by making more efficient cooling technologies more accessible to customers
- September 27, 2019
A social enterprise that finances and manages implementation of mangrove restoration and conservation by capturing the financial benefits generated by reducing property damage risks and storing blue carbon
- September 27, 2019
A bond issue with tied in technical assistance and financial incentives for local governments to finance air pollution and GHG emission reducing urban infrastructure in emerging market cities
- September 19, 2019
This study identifies the changes the Paris Agreement implies for the role of Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) – specifically members of the IDFC – and how they may implement these changes through a targeted set of activities.
This CPI study, produced as part of Project LEOPALD or Low Emissions Oil Palm Development examines whether palm oil’s potential as an economic driver will bear out for Indonesia’s goals, using Berau as an example case.
- July 10, 2019
Alternative Investment Funds offer the best near and medium-term path to expanding renewable energy access to capital markets.
This document, which was elaborated by PUC Rio’s Núcleo de Avaliação de Políticas Climáticas/Climate Policy Intiative (CPI), recommends the association between Rural Credit and the Forest Code to be put in practice in the next Plano Safra (2019/2020) – which is Brazilian annual agricultural plan.
This CPI study, produced in collaboration with PT Sarana Multi Infrastruktur (Persero) explores the potential of developing a green investment bank model in Indonesia.
- February 13, 2019
Without policy intervention and new market design, India’s clean electricity future may struggle to achieve its potential.
The Land-use Finance Tool offers methodological guidelines to countries, jurisdictions and their partners to map public and private investments that support forest and climate objectives, and those which might be driving deforestation.
- December 13, 2018
This report explores the current state of finance for climate adaptation and proposes practical, near term solutions to both fill in knowledge gaps and to increase investment.
- November 27, 2018
Global Climate Finance: An Updated View 2018 condenses a set of updated findings from our Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2017 report based on newly published data for 2015 and 2016, to provide the latest and best information possible for policy makers and investment leaders working to scale up investment for climate change action.
- November 19, 2018
This study aims to understand the role of public finance instruments for clean energy and identify opportunities to optimize them to spur private investment in Indonesia.
- November 12, 2018
The Energizing Finance series focuses on public and private finance commitments in 20 developing countries – known as the high-impact countries – that together account for nearly 80% of those living without access to sustainable energy.
- October 31, 2018
A CAPEX model with a commercial loan for the off-taker is a potential solution for these categories of customers. In this report, we assess the viability of the CAPEX loan model with a focus on the MSME sector, identify barriers to uptake, and recommended policy solutions to these barriers.
- October 26, 2018
This brief focuses on the business model aspects of two alternative livelihoods – cattle feed and fisheries – with application specifically to the East Kotawaringin and Katingan districts of Central Kalimantan in Indonesia.
- October 12, 2018
Selected for development from among hundreds of ideas submitted, the Lab’s investors prioritized ideas from sectors that remain critical for climate change action.
- October 8, 2018
The proposed Credit Guarantee Mechanism addresses the most important barriers to scaling rooftop solar in the MSME sector; and could be crucial if India wants to achieve its rooftop solar target by 2022.
- Saurabh Trivedi and Chavi MeattleSeptember 28, 2018
An electric bus battery financing mechanism to provide long-term debt financing to the electric transit sector in India, and reduce the ownership cost of electric buses to compete with diesel buses
- September 28, 2018
A vehicle to accelerate mass adoption of residential rooftop solar to power 200 million households in India, through standardized product offering, easy financing and efficient execution at scale
- Dario Abramskiehn and Alex ClarkSeptember 28, 2018
A vehicle to accelerate investment in clean transit by lowering the upfront cost of electric buses, allowing a utility to capitalize the on-board battery and charging station for bus owners and recover its costs with a predictable monthly charge
- Joseph Mabe and Xueying WangSeptember 28, 2018
A vehicle to increase clean energy access through mini-grids in Sub-Saharan Africa, by addressing demand and revenue risk through a risk pooling guarantee
- September 28, 2018
A vehicle to increase clean energy access through mini-grids in Sub-Saharan Africa, by addressing demand and revenue risk through a risk pooling guarantee
- September 28, 2018
A fund to increase forest restoration in the Amazon by investing and providing technical assistance to restore degraded lands in smallholders’ farms with agroforestry systems and, at the same time, developing and facilitating sales of their products
- September 28, 2018
A vehicle to promote the responsible production of commodities, particularly soy, in the Brazilian Cerrado biome, through incentives to plant in already cleared and degraded lands
- September 10, 2018
The Smallholder Forestry Vehicle packages tree production partnership contracts with thousands of smallholder farmers and sells them to investors, providing farmers and forestry companies with access to low-cost, long-term finance while enabling institutional investors to access sustainable forestry investments.
- Vaibhav Pratap Singh and Labanya Prakash JenaSeptember 10, 2018
Financing for Low-Carbon Auto-Rickshaws is a loan product that will enable drivers to purchase electric auto-rickshaws by providing debt financing for 100% of the purchase, lower interest rates, and no collateral requirements.
- September 10, 2018
The Distributed Energy for Social Housing Fund (DESH) is a financial solution that can accelerate distributed solar power for low-income tenants in Brazil. It is a third-party ownership and rental model for distributed solar systems in low-income condominiums in Brazil. It provides a robust, low-risk structure for investors, and energy cost savings for the low-income tenants.
Given the fundamental role finance plays in all facets of the global economy, it’s time to ask: How does a focus on 2050 change how we spend money today?
- Tiza Mafira, Randy Rakhmadi and Cherika Novianti HardjakusumahJuly 16, 2018
Berau can reach optimal palm oil production levels and fulfill mill capacity needs with minimal land expansion, however, smallholders – who represent a key piece of the supply chain – currently face challenges preventing them from operating efficiently.
- Vinit Atal, Dhruba Purkayastha and Gireesh ShrimaliJune 18, 2018
Analyzing all the pertinent constraints to the stakeholders in this case study we propose a solution that appears most feasible: A Transitional Foreign Exchange Debt Platform.
This CPI working paper focuses on understanding what would be needed for adaptation and resilience companies – specifically, analytics, or intelligence, companies – to expand in developing countries. Analytics companies help clients measure their potential impacts from climate change and identify measures to reduce them.
A four-report series that looks at the future of renewable energy in India along different economic dimensions, including the social costs, macroeconomic impacts, environmental impacts, financial risk, and flexibility considerations.
- Vinit Atal, Gireesh Shrimali and Vaibhav Pratap SinghMay 8, 2018
One of the most important risks to the Indian renewable energy sector is the counterparty credit risk, associated with the risk of state-owned utilities delaying or defaulting on their contractual payments to power producers, adding as much as 1.07% of additional risk premium to the cost of debt for renewable energy projects (CPI, 2018), and also limiting the availability of capital.
- April 3, 2018
In keeping with its goals for sustainable economic growth and an inclusive and equitable economy, Indonesia is committed to avoiding deforestation. As the drivers of deforestation often originate from activities outside of forest borders, it is not enough to solve deforestation by conducting segregated actions targeted to specific forest areas. Indonesia must also work to strengthen the rural economy and improve regional collaboration by working across various administrative jurisdictions that encompass forest governance. To ensure the success of this jurisdictional approach, improved economic power and village governance are key.
- Donovan Escalante, Dario Abramskiehn, Karoline Hallmeyer and Jessica BrownMarch 27, 2018
As governments and development finance institutions scale up delivery of climate finance commitments, the question of how to measure and ensure additionality becomes increasingly important. This paper presents new methodological approaches for assessing the additionality of climate investments, developed by Climate Policy initiative through ongoing work monitoring and evaluating the Climate Public Private Partnership (CP3).
- March 15, 2018
This study finds that while the renewable energy sector in India offers an attractive investment opportunity that is well matched with the needs of institutional investors, there are still barriers to investment.
- Padraig Oliver, Bella Tonkonogy, David Wang and Xueying WangMarch 7, 2018
In light of not only the scale of climate finance needs, but also the type of public finance instruments needed to leverage private flows, the importance of more connected coordination and collaboration by international public climate finance actors is crucial. Systems thinking approaches support the recognition of the effects of existing and new actors on scaling overall flows and their direction of travel, as well as support the collective optimisation of public finance interventions to achieve the scale needed – helping to understand not only the specific niche of each actor, but also how actors can most effectively coordinate and collaborate to achieve enduring impact.
- February 22, 2018
A new model for municipal financing for rooftop solar, via issuance of municipal bonds, has the potential to increase debt availability for rooftop solar project developers and lower rooftop solar costs up to 12% in Indian cities.
- January 13, 2018
The Global Landscape of Renewable Energy 2018 report is a concise, accessible summary of finance flows to renewables around the world. The study examines finance flows worldwide in 2013-2016, broken down by technology, financial instrument, and region.
- November 17, 2017
Hydroelectricity is the largest source of energy in Brazil’s portfolio and has brought with it a charged economic and environmental debate about the impact of hydropower plants (HPP) on their surrounding areas. This brief summarizes an analysis that measures the effects of HPP’s on economic performance and finances of municipalities.
- October 31, 2017
Climate Policy Initiative’s 2017 edition of the Global Landscape of Climate Finance updates the most comprehensive assessment of annual climate finance flows with data from 2015 and 2016, providing, for the first time, a five-year trend analysis on the how, where, and from whom finance is flowing toward low-carbon and climate-resilient actions globally.
- October 10, 2017
Renewable resources are at the center of the discussion on how to move towards a clean and reliable energy system around the world and are seen as a key instrument in combatting greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Brazil especially holds potential for advancing its level of solar energy through distributed generation, which generates power on-site at the point of consumption. In this new study, CPI researchers analyzed more than 5.000 municipalities in Brazil and show that demandside factors drive consumer uptake of PV distributed energy generation.
- September 20, 2017
- September 19, 2017
A mechanism for restoration and conservation of cloud forests in Latin America, which can improve the productivity of hydroelectric plants
- September 19, 2017
A fund that blends commercial and catalytic finance to invest growth equity in companies to accelerate the diffusion of climate intelligence products and resilience building solutions
- September 19, 2017
An instrument to package and securitize the cashflows of renewable energy projects and sell shares in local capital markets, providing long-term finance for projects in Brazil
- September 18, 2017
The new Energizing Finance report series reveals that current flow of finance for energy access and clean cooking will not achieve global goals for delivering universal access by 2030. Yet the data also shows that by scaling and refining finance strategies, we can reach more people, more affordably, with sustainable energy.
Supporting National Development Banks to Drive Investment in the Nationally Determined Contributions of Brazil, Mexico, and ChileSeptember 18, 2017
The Paris Agreement combats climate change through country-defined sustainable development plans, aiming to align financing flows with low-carbon climate resilient growth. National development banks and local financial institutions can play key roles in providing climate financing and supporting implementation of these plans.
- August 21, 2017
The analysts observe that the rise of flex cars is a key channel for improving consumer benefits and should be taken into consideration by policymakers, especially when they consider expanding production and markets for alternative fuels, such as hydrogen and electricity.
Pesquisadoras do CPI, através do projeto INPUT, analisaram as alternativas para compensação de Reserva Legal, ressaltando as vantagens e desvantagens inerentes a cada modalidade.
Given the growth of the secondary regenration of the Brazilian Amazon, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative (CPI)/ PUC-Rio conducted a study to show its possible causes and consequences.
- June 6, 2017
This analysis provides an in-depth look at the evolution of rural property rights in Brazil and the history that has shaped the complex situation the nation now faces.
The Next Step Towards Climate Change Mitigation: Improving Productivity of Brazil’s Agricultural Lands
Major transformations in agriculture have promoted yield gains, without increasing new forest clearings. The studies provide four examples in which this is the case — the soybean revolution in the Cerrado, the expansion of electricity in rural areas, a recent surge of sugarcane, and a change in the relative crop-to-beef prices.
- May 22, 2017
This study identifies productivity shocks using the expansion of rural electrification in Brazil during 1960-2000. The analysis shows that electrification increased crop productivity, and farmers subsequently both expand farming through frontier land conversion, but also shift away from cattle ranching and into crop cultivation.
Neste documento, pesquisadores do CPI analisam os principais entraves para a utilização da conversão de multa ambiental em prestação de serviços ambientais e propõem recomendações a serem adotadas pelo Poder Executivo para a sua efetiva implementação. Por fim, discutem a adoção desse mecanismo através do Código Florestal.
Complete decarbonization of the electricity demand of Indian Railways (IR) – transitioning from the current, largely fossil-fuel based energy mix to clean energy like solar and wind power – is likely to have multiple benefits. These include support in achieving India’s clean energy targets, enhancing India’s energy security, and reducing IR’s operational costs.
- Jane WilkinsonApril 4, 2017
This brief compiles and summarizes lessons from CPI analysis and projects from 2015 and 2016 on how governments and public finance institutions can work together with each other and the private sector to effectively and efficiently reduce the risks and costs of projects in order to attract green investment.
- March 14, 2017
This report analyses international financial institutions’ energy portfolios, identifies best practices, and develops an innovative methodological approach to show these organizations how they can adjust their approach to deliver on their mandates to increase economic productivity and meet environmental and social objectives while lowering energy use from fossil fuel sources at least cost.
- January 30, 2017
This study identifies domestic and international public finance that limited deforestation and encouraged sustainable land use in Côte d’Ivoire in 2015. It provides a baseline against which to measure progress towards the levels of investment required to meet government goals for sustainable agriculture and reforestation. It also identifies opportunities to increase finance available for implementation of its National REDD+ Strategy. For example, greening the hundreds of billions of West African CFA francs (FCFA) spent annually on business-as-usual agriculture in the country could increase productivity without sacrificing the country’s forests.
- Vivek Sen, Kuldeep Sharma and Gireesh ShrimaliDecember 21, 2016
India has ambitious renewable energy targets of 175GW by 2022. In order to meet this target, the renewable energy sector in India will require $189 billion in additional investment, including $57 billion in equity, and $132 billion in debt. The potential amount of investment in the renewable energy sector in India is more than double the investment required. However, the amount of investment expected falls short of the investment required, by 29% for equity and 27% for debt. Institutional investors show significant potential to help fill this financing gap.
Given this new focus on smaller clearings, which rural farmers and ranchers often instigate, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative (CPI)/ PUC-Rio investigated a critical question: do rural settlements cause deforestation?
This report offers a strategic guide for cities in developing countries to access finance from green bonds, a potential source of finance for cities in developing countries looking to secure investment in low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure to meet the water, energy, housing and transportation needs of their expanding urban populations.
Panorama dos direitos de propriedade no Brasil rural: legislação, gestão fundiária e Código FlorestalNovember 9, 2016
Os problemas fundiários no Brasil são tão velhos quanto nossa própria história. Até os dias de hoje, milhares de imóveis rurais estão em situação irregular, muitos agricultores não possuem títulos de propriedade e há espaços onde não é possível afirmar com certeza quem possui os direitos de propriedade sobre a terra. No Brasil, há vários municípios com áreas registradas que superam em uma, duas ou mais vezes a sua superfície territorial.
- Labanya Prakash Jena, Vinit Atal, Gireesh Shrimali and Vivek SenOctober 25, 2016
On October 25, 2016 the the India Lab announced endorsement of three innovative investment vehicles that will help drive millions of dollars of needed investment to India’s clean energy and green growth targets.
- October 14, 2016
Central Kalimantan is at a crucial juncture for sustainable land use. The region is in the middle of a mid-term regional development planning process and has the opportunity to make choices that benefit its communities and businesses into the future. Strong, evidence-based information on land values can inform the Strategic Environmental Assessment which feeds into the provincial spatial plan (Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah Provinsi or “RTRWP”). This analysis provides a framework to help the Central Kalimantan government, businesses and communities make informed decisions about how to manage land more sustainably. In particular, the report identifies biological, ecological, social, and cultural values considered exceptionally important in Central Kalimantan, and identifies threats to areas where these values occur.
This working paper, produced by Climate Policy Initiative with the technical support of Palangkaraya Institute for Land Use and Agricultural Research (PILAR) and University of Palangkaraya (UNPAR), lays the foundation for district level natural capital assessment in Central Kalimantan by reviewing existing mapping and regulations, and describing the design of such a study.
Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Land Use in Mozambique: Taxes, Financing, and Infrastructure
Researchers at Climate Policy Initiative—as part of the New Climate Economy project—examined the challenges and opportunities for investing in agriculture and natural resources management, with the goal of laying out next steps toward more efficient and sustainable land use in Mozambique. Focusing on low-cost policy modifications, we found four ways to improve agricultural productivity and natural resource management.
- Vivek Sen, Vaibhav Pratap Singh and Gireesh ShrimaliSeptember 30, 2016
A class of bonds to drive impact investment to sustainable energy in India by offering debt exposure, sufficient returns, and standardized impact measures
- September 30, 2016
A new asset facility to back a global fleet of moveable, megawatt-scale solar farms and aims to deploy 10 MW of solar power in the first year
- September 30, 2016
A platform to drive needed private capital to sustainable urbanization projects in India by connecting investors and municipalities with a pipeline of investment opportunities
- September 30, 2016
An innovative options mechanism to dramatically reduce risk and drive large amounts of private institutional investment into early-stage renewable energy development in emerging markets
- September 30, 2016
An instrument to finance distributed renewable energy systems in agricultural and transport cooperatives, which can help Brazil increase its share of renewables in its power supply and mitigate its carbon emissions
- September 30, 2016
A business model to provide resources and technical assistance to intensify and increase cattle production in Brazil, while also restoring degraded pastures and forests, and decreasing deforestation
- September 29, 2016
Since 2011, CPI’s Global Landscape of Climate Finance has become a benchmark for information about how finance is flowing from actors and sources, toward low-carbon and climate-resilient activities. CPI has reviewed climate finance flows for the years 2013 and 2014.
In order to expand the rooftop solar industry in India, there is a need to develop policy solutions, business models, and financing instruments which can address these barriers. One promising solution to manage these barriers is the third party financing model. However, the third party financing model would first need to overcome certain challenges. This report explores the driving factors and challenges to the third party financing model, and proposes a series of recommendations for policy changes and financial instruments which could address these challenges.
This report shows that there are important social, economic, and environmental costs associated with the lack of well-defined property rights; while at the same time presenting the many complexities within Brazil’s system of land governance that need to be addressed in order to improve the system.
Despite the importance of Matopiba to Brazil’s economy, the impact and extent of this surge in agricultural output has not been thoroughly studied. For instance, this study shows that agricultural expansion in Matopiba is heavily concentrated in municipalities located in the Cerrado biome.
- Charith Konda, Saurabh Trivedi and Gireesh ShrimaliJuly 31, 2016
One key sector of the Indian economy that could set a strategic example for decarbonization and meeting India’s 2030 targets under the Paris Agreement is the rail transport system, and specifically Indian Railways (IR), India’s national railway service. In this report, we have identified different potential pathways to decarbonization of IR by 2030 and examined their cost-effectiveness and feasibility.
If there seems to be general agreement that transport infrastructure is lacking, what is the hurdle that prevents investment? In this paper, INPUT researchers at Climate Policy Initiative in Brazil investigate how the regulation of this market may be to blame.
- June 27, 2016
Nesta publicação, pesquisadores do Climate Policy Initiative no Brasil, através do projeto INPUT, mostram de que maneira a associação entre o Crédito Rural e o Código Florestal pode ser aperfeiçoada e colocada em prática já em 2017, através do Plano Agrícola e Pecuário (PAP) e do Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (Pronaf).
- June 27, 2016
On 27 June 2016 in London, Lab Advisors and Principals met to review 2015-2016 instruments, endorse their technical design, and indicate future backing. Principals endorsed four pilot-ready instruments to unlock investment in climate adaptation and mitigation in developing countries.
- Valerio Micale, Karoline Hallmeyer and Jessica BrownJune 27, 2016
A private equity fund that relies on donor-backed equity capital, technical assistance, and risk mitigation instruments to crowd in private investment in energy efficiency
- Chiara Trabacchi, Jessica Brown, Rodney Boyd, David Wang and James FalzonJune 3, 2016
This study’s primary aim is to identify if and where the CIF business model adds value in the landscape of climate finance and whether the CIF holds a comparative advantage in supporting climate-relevant investment needs compared to other multilateral climate funds.
The purpose of this paper is to assess how the nature of property rights in Brazil will affect the implementation of the Forest Code and the realization of the potential positive environmental impacts. This paper analyzes the historical evolution of property rights in Brazil, and it examines how the institutional structure of administering property rights affects the incentives and behavior for property owners.
Driving Foreign Investment to Renewable Energy in India: A Payment Security Mechanism to Address Off-Taker RiskArsalan Ali Farooquee and Gireesh ShrimaliApril 18, 2016
As India prepares to meet its increasing energy demands, which will likely double by 2030, the government has set a path towards ambitious renewable energy targets of …
- Andrew Goggins and David NelsonMarch 22, 2016
This paper helps policymakers and stakeholders better understand how issues around climate related policies affect national budgets. It also offers suggestions about how policymakers and stakeholders can develop appropriate strategies.
- Angela Falconer and Skye GlendayFebruary 2, 2016
This paper discusses the role of international development partners in financing mitigation and adaptation actions in the land use sectors in Indonesia. We evaluate what progress has been made to date, what challenges have been met, and what opportunities lie ahead to effectively support Indonesia, reflecting on the value add that development partners bring to the domestic picture.
Indonesia’s government has ambitious dual revenue and emission reduction goals: its 2015 revenue targets are 21% higher than 2014 targets, and it aims to reduce emissions 29% by 2030. These dual goals make it a growing priority to find ways to encourage productive land use that can generate domestic revenue, while also curbing emissions and deforestation. In a series of two studies, CPI’s analysis indicates that Indonesia has opportunities to improve its fiscal policy frameworks to meet both goals simultaneously.
- Morgan Hervé-Mignucci, Xueying Wang, David Nelson and Uday VaradarajanDecember 15, 2015
CPI examines the financing of Chinese coal power plants, beginning with an overview of the current state of the coal power sector, with the aim of exploring financing levers which could optimize electric power growth while also greening the system.
Getting the most from your green: An approach to using public money effectively through green banks and other low-carbon financingJeff Deason, Uday Varadarajan and Patricia LeviDecember 8, 2015
This document addresses the effective uses of public financial interventions for low carbon projects. It provides an overview of Climate Policy Initiative’s (CPI’s) approach
to determining the most efficient ways in which green banking and other public financial interventions could support the transition to a low-carbon economy.
In order to achieve its climate targets and to promote efficient land use, Brazil must implement and enforce the environmental protections outlined in its Forest Code of 2012. Though it has promise, the legislation relies heavily on the compliance of Brazilian states and individual landowners to ensure its success. These two in-depth policy briefs address these challenges by facilitating understanding of and compliance with the Forest Code.
China has grown into a major provider of coal power finance in overseas markets
- November 20, 2015
This study advances understanding of how to assess publicly-mobilized private investment in climate resilience by developing, testing and evaluating a range of methodological options to estimate the amount of private finance mobilized by developed countries’ public finance interventions for climate adaptation in developing countries.
- November 16, 2015
The amount of climate finance invested around the world in 2014 increased by 18% over the previous year from USD 331 billion to an estimated USD 391 billion.
Central Kalimantan’s Oil Palm Value Chain: Opportunities for Productivity, Profitability and Sustainability Gains
This working paper provides a first overview of Central Kalimantan’s oil palm value chain and the business actors involved throughout. It aims to identify how business investment can be optimized to support socially inclusive development, delivering productivity, profitability, and sustainability gains.
- October 7, 2015
With the aim of informing the international discussions and enhancing transparency on climate finance ahead of the UNFCCC 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, the current and incoming COP Presidencies, Peru and France, asked the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in collaboration with CPI to provide an up-to-date aggregate estimate of mobilized climate finance and an indication of the progress towards the UNFCCC climate finance goal.
- Martin Stadelmann and Angela FalconerOctober 6, 2015
Few studies examine how technical assistance may help mobilize additional public and private climate finance to help developing countries mitigate and adapt to climate change. This paper aims to provide some first insights on the topic by analyzing five technical assistance programs of the German ‘Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), one of the largest technical assistance agencies worldwide.
Increasing global demand for food and the need to address climate change risk make it ever more urgent to both protect ecosystems and use land more productively and efficiently. Brazil is a key player in this context and has made significant gains in recent decades. Between 1970 and 2006, its average national cattle farm productivity doubled and its average national crop farm productivity quadrupled. More recently, the country’s conservation efforts have been successful in reducing the rate of Amazon forest clearings to its lowest level in 30 years.
What Counts: Tools to Help Define and Understand Progress Towards the $100 Billion Climate Finance CommitmentAugust 31, 2015
This paper aims to make a positive contribution in the lead up to Paris by first unpacking the key variables Parties have emphasized in debates about “what counts” towards the $100bn climate finance goal, and then proposing an approach to classifying climate finance that Parties could use as a starting point for their analyses and interpretations. It takes no position on what should count: instead it organizes different aspects of climate finance in politically relevant ways that could help facilitate clearer understanding and convergence.
- Valerio Micale and Padraig OliverAugust 21, 2015
This report provides recommendations on the design and distribution of policymakers and development finance institutions’ policy and financing tools to enable fast and cost-effective deployment of geothermal in developing countries. It draws lessons from case studies of geothermal projects with different public, private and mixed development models in Turkey, Kenya and Indonesia.
- Dario Abramskiehn, David Wang and Barbara BuchnerAugust 20, 2015
Climate change has financial implications for investors – presenting significant portfolio risks as well as new market opportunities. This paper explores the landscape of climate exposure and examines the strengths as well as some of the current limitations of ESG data, tools, and financial products.
- August 17, 2015
Annual deforestation rates in Brazil’s Amazon fell by almost 80% between 2004 and 2012 due in large part to conservation policies Brazil introduced in 2004. While this is welcome news to policymakers intent on combating forest clearings, a new challenge has emerged: deforestation now occurs on smaller tracts of land, which is more difficult to detect and remains unaddressed.
- Valerio Micale, Martin Stadelmann and Leonardo BoniJuly 22, 2015
An instrument to insure the financial performance of energy efficiency savings projects in Mexico and other countries
Risk Mitigation Instruments for Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Hydropower in Africa
This study examines the effectiveness of risk mitigation instruments used in a Ugandan hydropower project in driving investment and reducing costs and examines how these instruments might be used to drive private investment in other renewable energy projects in developing countries with high investment risks. The project is one of very few to make simultaneous use of different risk mitigation instruments provided by the World Bank Group.
- July 13, 2015
This study presents three tools for governments and their partners to use to inform the design of efficient and effective land use mitigation and adaptation strategies supported by multilateral and bilateral programs, to identify domestic and international financial instruments that can redirect public and private finance towards greener land-use practices, and to encourage coordination between public instruments across land-use sectors.
India has ambitious renewable energy targets for 2022, but because of the government’s limited budget, a cost-effective policy path is crucial to achieving those targets. Achieving India’s renewable energy targets cost-effectively faces two key barriers – a shortage of debt and inferior terms of debt.
Using Private Finance to Accelerate Geothermal Deployment: Sarulla Geothermal Power Plant, IndonesiaRandy Rakhmadi and Guntur SutiyonoJune 16, 2015
This case study analyzes the 330MW Sarulla Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) which is on course to become the largest single contract geothermal power plant project in the world in 2018. The project has the highest private sector involvement of any geothermal project on a previously undeveloped field in Indonesia, thanks to substantial public support in the form of financing, guarantees and a feed-in tariff.
This working paper provides emerging insights from the experience of seven Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) in driving private sector investment in climate resilience.
Achieving a high-productivity, sustainable palm oil sector in Indonesia: a landscape management approach
A growing number of government, business and civil society, including Unilever and IDH, have a goal of transforming the Indonesian rural economy by 2020, to deliver net positive environmental impacts and improve smallholder farmer livelihoods. This requires a focus on transforming the oil palm sector from being a driver of deforestation, to one that is highly productive and sustainable.
- Valerio Micale, Chiara Trabacchi and Leonardo BoniJune 2, 2015
This case study looks at Olkaria III, the first privately funded and developed geothermal project in Africa to understand how the Kenyan government and international public finance are working together to attract private investment in geothermal.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Charith Konda, Arsalan Ali Farooquee and David NelsonMay 13, 2015
The Government of India has set ambitious renewable energy targets for 2022, in order to achieve its climate goals and enhance energy security. Given India’s budget constraints, a cost-effective policy path will be crucial to achieving these targets. One way to reduce the cost of government support needed to achieve its renewable energy targets is through the tariffs it uses to procure renewable energy.
Opportunities for Increasing Productivity & Profitability of Oil Palm Smallholder Farmers in Central Kalimantan
The Governments of Indonesia and Central Kalimantan have ambitious targets to both grow the palm oil sector and improve environmental quality by reducing deforestation, and smallholder farmers are an important part of the picture. We find that, as the plantation area managed by smallholder farmers grows, there are opportunities to improve productivity and farmer benefits within all models of smallholder organization that we examined, particularly for individual partnership and independent farmers.
- April 22, 2015
In April 2015, Lab members, who include high-level experts from public and private institutions, endorsed the launch of the pilot initiatives after a year-long process supported by rigorous analysis to determine which instruments showed the most promise. The initiatives have collectively raised over USD 100 million in initial funding, with more expected to follow through an ongoing process that will draw on expertise and resources of additional Lab member institutions, as well as other private and public stakeholders. The Phase 3 Instrument reports summarize analysis conducted by Climate Policy Initiative, as Lab Secretariat, to refine these initiatives and outline concrete implementation pathways.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Sandhya Srinivasan, Shobhit Goel, Saurabh Trivedi and David NelsonApril 14, 2015
The Government of India has ambitious renewable energy targets, but limited financial resources to meet those targets. CPI examines how much it would cost the government to reach its renewable energy targets, by comparing the levelized cost of electricity from renewable energy to a baseline fossil fuel in absence of any subsidies – whether explicit or implicit; estimating the total cost of support for renewable energy under accelerated depreciation, which is the most cost-effective of existing policies; and investigating federal policy options to make this support even more cost-effective.
- Padraig Oliver and Gianleo FrisariApril 7, 2015
This report provides the analysis on Climate Investor One, a financing facility for early-stage development, construction financing, and refinancing to fast-track renewable energy projects in developing countries.
Geothermal energy holds significant promise for the development of low-carbon energy systems. One of the lowest cost sources of renewable electricity, it also has the ability to meet baseload power demand and backstop fluctuating …
- February 25, 2015
One crucial aspect of efficient land use is agricultural risk management, which includes protecting farmers from adverse shocks, such as unfavorable weather and pests, and from price risk caused by volatility in output prices. The latter is currently a major concern for Brazilian farmers and policymakers — not only because unmanaged price risk can result in low income for farmers, and thereby affect productivity, but moreover because it can restrict farmers’ ability to raise credit, which can affect agricultural growth more broadly.
- November 24, 2014
The Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance is a new, global initiative that draws on expertise from around the world to design and pilot the next generation of cutting edge climate finance instruments.
- November 20, 2014
The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2014 found that global climate finance flows fell to USD 331 billion – far below even the most conservative estimates of investment needs.
- October 23, 2014
Geothermal energy is broadly cost competitive with fossil fuel alternatives even without a carbon price. However, its rate of deployment has been slower than other renewables over the last thirty years and will need to speed up rapidly if this technology is to deliver on its promise. In addition, geothermal technologies that can harness lower temperature geothermal resources need to achieve more deployment to bring costs down.
- David Nelson, Morgan Hervé-Mignucci, Andrew Goggins, Sarah Jo Szambelan and Julia ZuckermanOctober 8, 2014
With the right policies, the transition to a low-carbon energy system consistent with avoiding the most damaging effects of climate change could free up trillions of dollars over the next 20 years to invest in better economic growth.
In 2007, 36 Brazilian municipalities were responsible for 45% of the deforestation in the Amazon Biome – an astonishing figure considering Brazil has 547 municipalities that transect the Biome. In 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of Environment set out to address this by blacklisting thirty-six municipalities, setting them as Municípios Prioritários (Priority Municipalities, or MPs).
San Giorgio Group Brief: Early Lessons on Introducing Energy Performance Contracts in Italy - Milan's Energy Efficiency ProgramValerio Micale, Jeff Deason and Morgan Hervé-MignucciSeptember 3, 2014
Governments around the world use energy performance contracts (EPCs) with energy service companies (ESCOs) to reduce the energy costs and carbon emissions of public buildings without any budget outlay on their part. This brief draws lessons from the first program of this kind in Italy to cover energy savings alone and introduce pure EPC on a regional scale.
San Giorgio Group Brief: How Spain created a world-leading CSP industry then shattered investor confidence
Part of a series looking at the role of public finance in driving concentrated solar power (CSP) deployment and cost reductions, this report draws lessons from Spanish support policies which drove the creation of a world-leading industry and then shattered investor confidence through retroactive changes.
This brief explains CPI’s understanding and definition of key climate finance terms and the reasons for these definitions to inform the debate and build a common understanding among stakeholders.
- July 23, 2014
Indonesia’s desire to drive economic growth and reduce climate risk is reflected in the sweeping policy reforms it has introduced in recent years to meet targets announced in 2009 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this report, CPI identifies which public actors are investing in Indonesia, through which instruments, and what they are investing in to provide a baseline against which to measure progress and plan scale up. This mapping exercise reveals investment patterns that allow decision makers to pinpoint where the biggest barriers and opportunities are.
- Angela Falconer, Anja Rosenberg, Jane Wilkinson and Skye GlendayJuly 23, 2014
Dalam laporan ini kami mengidentikasi para pelaku publik yang berinvestasi di Indonesia, instrumen yang digunakan, dan bentuk investasi yang dilakukan yang kemudian menjadi landasan untuk mengukur progress dan rencana pengembangan.
Cap and Trade in Practice: Barriers and Opportunities for Industrial Emissions Reductions in CaliforniaJulia Zuckerman, Karen Laughlin, Dario Abramskiehn and Xueying WangJuly 1, 2014
California is both one of the largest economies and one of the largest emitters globally, making its climate change policies some of the most important in the world. They are also some of the most ambitious. In particular, California’s Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB32) set a series of policies and programs across all major business sectors to return California emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. A key component of this set of policies is the Cap and Trade Program…
Getting the most from your green: A case study for using public money effectively for large-scale renewable energy in CaliforniaJeff Deason, Uday Varadarajan and Patricia LeviJuly 1, 2014
This brief illustrates CPI’s approach to identifying effective uses of public financial interventions for low-carbon projects. It presents our analysis of the financial barriers affecting large-scale renewable energy in California.
When compared with other countries, Brazil’s land rental markets fall short. Only 3.3% of Brazilian agricultural land was under lease or sharecropping contracts in the latest World Census of Agriculture. In contrast, this figure is about 33% in Europe and almost 38% in the United States. Considering Brazil’s large land area and the extensive portion of this area occupied by agriculture and pastures, the potential of land rentals to improve agricultural productivity is huge.
- Martin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari and Anja RosenbergJune 23, 2014
This study shows that if international finance institutions (IFIs) and committed national governments were to join forces to deploy 5-15GW of concentrated solar power (CSP), it could reduce its electricity production costs by around 14-44% and make CSP competitive in countries like Morocco and South Africa. With findings drawn from four case studies and background paper, this policy brief offers recommendations for IFIs and developing country policymakers on how to make this happen in the most cost-effective way.
Electricity systems across the U.S. and Europe face significant challenges in the transition to low-carbon energy. While the transition provides plenty of opportunities for investors, businesses, and consumers alike, the current business and regulatory models of investor owned utilities (IOUs) and independent power producers (IPPs), which have mainly developed around competitive markets for fossil fuel generation, are particularly ill-suited to take advantage of these new opportunities.
- Rodney Boyd, Anja Rosenberg and Andrew HobbsJune 13, 2014
The 100 MW Eskom CSP power tower plant being developed in Upington by Eskom, South Africa’s state-owned electricity utility, is one of the most technically challenging of its kind under development outside of the US. It brings higher potential for cost reduction, building up local supply chains and promoting energy security than other CSP project currently under development in the country.
- May 7, 2014
While PROINFA – Brazil’s wind energy program – was successful in deploying energy to meet its goals – it accounted for much of the growth from 29 MW to 2,010 MW in installed wind capacity in Brazil between 2004 and 2012 – our analysis suggests that issues with the design of PROINFA’s contracts reduced the program’s cost-effectiveness.
- Barbara Buchner, Martin Stadelmann and Jane WilkinsonApril 29, 2014
This brief presents findings from a project that aims to support the Green Climate Fund in its design and operationalization of an innovative and effective Private Sector Facility. It was carried out in close partnership with the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment.
Solving India’s Renewable Energy Financing Challenge: Instruments to Provide Low-cost, Long-term DebtGireesh Shrimali, Charith Konda and Sandhya SrinivasanApril 21, 2014
In this paper, we explore financing instruments, used in other regions as well as those that were recently introduced in India in other contexts that have the potential to provide and/or facilitate low-cost, long-term debt for renewable energy in India.
- Gireesh Shrimali, Shobhit Goel, Sandhya Srinivasan and David NelsonMarch 24, 2014
The Government of India has set ambitious targets for renewable energy — a doubling of existing renewable energy capacity to 55,000 MW by 2017. However, unsubsidized renewable energy is still 52-129% more expensive than conventional power, and requires policy support.
San Giorgio Group Case Study: The Role of Public Finance in CSP - Rajasthan Sun Technique 100MW CSP plant, IndiaMartin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari and Charith KondaMarch 10, 2014
The 100MW Rajasthan Sun Technique CSP plant is not only the first linear Fresnel CSP plant in India and the largest in the world, it is also one of the cheapest large-scale CSP plants ever built. This case study finds that while Indian solar policy was essential to build this innovative plant it was not enough for India to deploy CSP plants at the desired level and speed.
- David Nelson and Gireesh ShrimaliJanuary 20, 2014
Renewable energy financing in emerging economies faces particularly daunting challenges, but there are creative policy solutions that could potentially reduce the cost of renewable energy support by as much as 30%.
San Giorgio Group Brief: The Role of Public Finance in CSP - Background and Approach to Measuring EffectivenessMartin Stadelmann, Gianleo Frisari, Rodney Boyd and Jacobo FeásJanuary 17, 2014
Many experts and international institutions expect concentrated solar power (CSP) to supply up to 10% of global energy demand by 2050. However, today CSP’s costs remain above alternative sources of power and public finance is needed to bridge this gap: over 98% of the total investment in CSP to date has needed some form of public support. This brief, the first in series of reports on CSP, looks at the global landscape of CSP in terms of markets, technology, financing models, and policies to better understand how to structure effective and cost-effective public policies and investments.
- Sangeetha Chandrashekeran, Julia Zuckerman and Jeff DeasonJanuary 14, 2014
California has long been a leader in energy efficiency policy among U.S. states, and the Risk-Reward Incentive Mechanism (RRIM) represents a large-scale policy experiment that holds lessons for other jurisdictions dealing with energy efficiency policy design, especially those considering shareholder incentives. Our evaluation of the RRIM contributes to the debate on the effectiveness of shareholder incentives, providing insights on how program design choices and institutional dynamics contribute to policy outcomes.
In this San Giorgio Group Case Study, Climate Policy Initiative studies the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience to highlight early lessons from a project engaging private actors in building the resilience of Nepal’s agricultural sector. The overarching goal of this project is to establish models for climate-smart agriculture that make climate resilience a business proposition for the private actors involved, long beyond the project’s life.
- December 3, 2013
We find that there is ample scope for enhanced protection of natural resources and growth of agricultural production in Brazil within a Production and Protection framework. From a protection standpoint, the country would benefit from developing mechanisms that significantly drive up the private cost of clearing native vegetation, as well as through the advancement of market-based incentives that promote sustainable practices. From a production standpoint, there is room to increase Brazilian agricultural production via productivity gains, at no apparent cost to environmental conservation.
Emissions from deforestation and forest degradation make up nearly one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions and the estimated costs of halving emissions from deforestation and forest degradation by 2030 far exceed available public resources. This case study analyzes the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership project in Indonesia to see what it can teach policymakers and investors about rehabilitating degraded peatland effectively, and what barriers need to be overcome to attract private investment at scale.
- November 7, 2013
A no-till farming method called the Direct Planting System (DPS) is one of the most important developments in agriculture in the past decades. Farmers who adopt the DPS produce higher crop yields at a lower cost while generating lower carbon emissions from their farming, outcomes that benefit both farmers and the climate. Adoption of the DPS does not have any relevant upfront costs and results in more reliable yields than traditional farming. However, nearly forty years after the introduction of the DPS in Southern Brazil (in 1971), adoption levels remain very low throughout the country.
California Carbon Dashboard is a new, beta website that offers an overview of AB32 and California climate policies, including carbon price tracking, news aggregation, and interactive graphics.
- October 22, 2013
The Global Landscape of Climate Finance 2013, found that global climate finance flows plateaued at USD 359 billion, or around USD 1 billion per day – far below even the most conservative estimates of investment needs.
- September 26, 2013
In this study, CPI provides an overview of general risk coverage offered through the WBG’s various member institutions, potential gaps compared to existing demand, and trends of risk coverage commitments for climate change.
- Rodney Boyd and Morgan Hervé-MignucciSeptember 16, 2013
CPI describes how a combination of public policies and financial instruments, and robust private risk management measures mobilized EUR 360 million of private investment in Scandinavian Europe’s largest windfarm, delivering power to 100,000 homes.
The Role of Development Finance Institutions and Development Banks in Scaling Up Green and Climate InvestmentsBarbara Buchner, Chiara Trabacchi, Claire Painter and Jane WilkinsonSeptember 4, 2013
Drawing on analysis carried out by CPI, representatives of these organizations agreed to collaborate more closely on priority issues, such as driving more private investment, reducing perceived and actual investment risk, changing investment policies to move away from fossil-fuel projects, and creating more transparency on financial flows and best practice.
- Andrew Hobbs, Elinor Benami, Uday Varadarajan and Brendan PierpontJuly 25, 2013
Most homeowners in California are no longer purchasing the panels on their rooftops, they are leasing them. Over 75% of California’s new residential solar systems in 2012 were leased as compared to less than 10% in 2007. As policymakers across the country and elsewhere look to spur further growth of solar PV in a constrained budget environment, the California experience — and in particular, the rise of leasing — may hold lessons for improving the effectiveness of solar policy generally.
This brief distills the elements of natural capital assessment process, highlights a few cases of existing, related experience and tools from around the world; and situates the discussion in the context of Indonesia’s development goals and pressures.
- Julia Zuckerman, Jeff Deason and Elinor BenamiMay 21, 2013
California policymakers are considering how to allocate Proposition 39 funds — an estimated $2.75 billion over five years — to support energy efficiency and clean energy projects in K-12 schools and other public buildings. Proposition 39 presents a substantial opportunity to help school districts save energy and money. In order to inform the ongoing discussion, Climate Policy Initiative analyzed existing resources and gaps in financing for energy-saving projects in K-12 school districts.
- May 8, 2013
We estimate that DETER-based environmental monitoring and law enforcement policies prevented the clearing of over 59,500 km2 of Amazon forest area from 2007 through 2011. Deforestation observed during this period totaled 41,500 km2 – 59% less than in the absence of the policy change. We also find that the policy change had no impact on agricultural production.
In The Policy Climate, we offer an overview of policy issues relevant to climate change across the world. We find that the implementation of policy relevant to climate change, and its impact, accelerated markedly over the last decade, despite the slow pace of international climate negotiations.
- April 9, 2013
This report compares energy efficiency policy in buildings in China, Germany, and the United States, providing the context for, and describing, policies in these three countries in order to lay the groundwork for future review of policy effectiveness.
- March 27, 2013
National Development Banks (NDBs) can play a big role in climate finance. In many cases, they already are: In CPI’s most recent estimate, NDBs, together with bilateral financial institutions, raised and channeled USD 54 billion in 2010/2011 to renewable energy, energy efficiency, and other climate-related measures.
Institutional investors, which together manage assets of over $70 trillion, often have investment objectives that are aligned with the investment profile of infrastructure. At first glance, access to this large pool of capital and the alignment of objectives should help lower the costs of financing renewable energy. In this study, CPI finds that while these investors could supply a significant share of the total required investment, various factors limit the extent to which they can invest in a way that could lower the cost of financing renewable energy. Furthermore, financial regulation of institutional investors, regulation of energy markets, and renewable energy policy, often create additional obstacles to renewable energy investment.
- January 29, 2013
Does Credit Affect Deforestation? takes a look at Resolution 3,545, which placed conditions on farmers seeking rural credit concessions in the Brazilian Amazon Biome. Our analysis suggests that Resolution 3,545 helped curb deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Biome. We estimate that the resolution prevented approximately BRL 2.9 billion (USD 1.4 billion) in loans from 2008 through 2011. This reduction in credit in turn prevented over 2,700 km2 of forest area from being cleared, which represents a 15% decrease in deforestation in the biome during the period.
- January 21, 2013
Risk — whether real or perceived — is the single most important factor preventing renewable energy projects from finding financial investors, or raising the returns that these investors demand. It is also one thing that policymakers can cause, control, alleviate, or help mitigate. In a series of three studies, titled Risk Gaps, CPI maps the availability of risk instruments against demand and analyzes several new, potential instruments designed to address the biggest gaps: first-loss protection instruments and policy risk insurance.
- December 11, 2012
Overall, while policies and public resources are affecting the performance of investments in ways consistent with low carbon growth, more action is required to help private actors overcome real and perceived risks — in developing and developed markets — and deliver green investments at large scale.
- December 5, 2012
The cost and terms of the debt available in India to finance wind and solar projects is a major problem, increasing the cost of renewable energy by up to a third compared to similar projects in the U.S. and Europe.
- December 5, 2012
We evaluate the effectiveness of Indian REC markets against eight government objectives and find that this program is not likely to achieve government objectives.
- December 3, 2012
Global annual investment to curb climate change reached approximately USD 364 billion in 2010/2011. This amount, while significant, falls short of most estimates of investment needed to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius.
- November 30, 2012
By compiling data from a wide range of sources, we create the most comprehensive snapshot to-date of the current state of German climate finance. Our research suggests that EUR 37 billion, or 1.5% of GDP, was invested in 2010 to support the German transition to a low-carbon economy. The private sector provided more than 95% of this finance.
- November 29, 2012
Als fuehrende Kraft in Europas Entwicklung hin zur schadstoffarmen Gesellschaft hat Deutschland ehrgeizige Ziele für seinen Beitrag zum globalen Kampf gegen den Klimawandel gesetzt. Die Erreichung dieser Ziele erfordert erhebliche Investitionen in erneuerbare Energien, Energieeffizienz und andere Massnahmen zur Verringerung von Treibhausgasemissionen. Mit Hilfe von Daten aus einer Vielzahl von Quellen geben wir in in unserem Bericht den derzeit umfassendsten Ueberblick über den aktuellen Stand der deutschen Klimafinanzierung. Unsere Untersuchungen fuer das Jahr 2010 zeigen, dass 37 Milliarden Euro oder 1,5% des BIP in den Übergangs zu einer kohlenstoffarmen Wirtschaft investiert wurden.
Tracking Emissions and Mitigation Actions: Learning from MRV Systems in China, Germany, Italy, and the United StatesNovember 27, 2012
CPI has engaged in an effort to characterize, evaluate, and draw insights from existing domestic MRV systems for emissions and mitigation actions in four of the major emitters – China, Germany, Italy, and the United States.
This report examines how industrial facilities respond to cap and trade, and shows that the most likely responses will reduce air pollution as well as greenhouse gas emissions. This is supported by evidence that Europe’s cap and trade system has reduced local air pollution from oil refineries and other industrial facilities.
- Uday Varadarajan, Brendan Pierpont, Andrew Hobbs and Kath RowleySeptember 16, 2012
Renewable energy deployment in the United States is booming. Though this growth was financed largely through private investment, state and federal policies have played a key role. This report shows the federal government could sustain support for wind and solar at much lower cost to taxpayers by replacing current tax credits with cash incentives.
Ouarzazate I is a 160MW Concentrated Solar Power plant in Morocco, generously supported by a subsidy from the Government of Morocco and concessional capital from international development banks. Ouarzazate I only makes economic sense if it contributes to the development of a commercially-sustainable regional Concentrated Solar Power market. Projects like Ouarzazate I play a crucial bridging role but, in order to scale-up projects like these, costs need to fall and revenues need to grow.
- July 18, 2012
This paper examines the M&E systems applied by a selection of eight multilateral and bilateral intermediaries, as well as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change reporting framework. It was originally developed as a background paper for ‘Improving the Effectiveness of Climate Finance: Key Lessons’, a joint study by a consortium of researchers from Environmental Defense Fund, Climate Policy Initiative, Brookings Institution, and Overseas Development Institute on the topic of the effectiveness of climate finance published in November 2011.
To support CPUC in the development of a cost limitation for California’s RPS, Climate Policy Initiative reviewed experience in a number of states with costs limits in renewable energy policies. Our qualitative analysis reveals several general lessons about cost limits and their role in renewable energy policy, and points to recommendations for California.
Walney Offshore Windfarms (WOW) in the U.K., the largest offshore windfarm in the world in 2012, faced financing challenges because of the risks associated with this immature though promising technology and the escalating European debt crisis. Through a combination of U.K. policy support and innovative financial engineering, the project was successful in attracting nontraditional investors including a pension and a private equity fund.
- Chiara Trabacchi, Valerio Micale and Gianleo FrisariJune 1, 2012
Program Solaire (Prosol) is an incentive program that promotes residential solar water heaters in Tunisia. In the early 2000s, the deployment of solar water heaters remained low due to fossil fuel subsidies. The Tunisian government had attempted to discontinue the fossil fuel subsidies, but a public outcry caused policymakers to abandon this course of action.
- Uday Varadarajan and Julia ZuckermanMarch 28, 2012
This paper puts these programs in the broader context of energy-related activities in the federal budget and provides a starting point for further discussion and analysis of the federal government’s role in energy and climate change. We outline the landscape of federal spending and revenue collection activities that substantially influence energy supply or use in 2010, organized by the type of policy tool or mechanism supported.
- March 21, 2012
Brazilian deforestation rates fell from 27,000 km2 in 2004 to 7,000 km2 at the end of the decade. Results indicate that the conservation policies associated with the policy turning points were effective at curbing Amazon deforestation, helping avoid an estimated 73,000 km2 of Amazon forest clearings from 2005 through 2009. This is equivalent to approximately 2.7 billion tons of stored CO2, which our estimates value at 13.2 billion US dollars.
On October 16th and 17th, 2011, Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) and the World Bank Group, in collaboration with China Light & Power (CLP) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), hosted the inaugural meeting of the San Giorgio Group (SGG).
- November 23, 2011
A joint study by Environmental Defense Fund, Climate Policy Initiative, Brookings Institution, and Overseas Development Institute.
This review explores China’s low-carbon development efforts under the 11th FYP period. What drove the decline in energy intensity? How did government actions contribute to this decline? What are the implications of China’s experience for the 12th FYP?
- October 1, 2011
In this paper, CPI assesses the current status of the climate finance landscape, mapping its magnitude and nature along the life cycle of finance flows, i.e. the sources of finance, intermediaries involved in distribution, financial instruments, and final uses.
- Uday Varadarajan, David Nelson, Brendan Pierpont and Morgan Hervé-MignucciOctober 1, 2011
CPI studied six large-scale renewable electricity generation projects in the United States and Europe to evaluate how policy affects project economics, as well as the cost and availability of financing.
Decarbonizing the EU power system involves more than investment in generation and grid – it requires a smart power market as well. A new study led by CPI shows that the current EU power market design does not effectively support European member states’ plan to connect 200GW of wind and solar power to the transmission system by 2020.
Efficiency improvements in the building sector are a key component of the German Energy Concept. The stated objective of the Concept is a 20% reduction in the heat requirement of buildings by 2020, so as to achieve an 80% reduction in the primary energy requirement by 2050. In these CPI reports and briefs, CPI analysis addresses questions emerging from the review of policy instruments and programs focused on this objective.
In this paper, Climate Policy Initiative San Francisco assesses the impact of state energy codes using residential energy use data at the state level. By conducting a regression analysis comparing states with building energy codes to those without, CPI SF measures the realized energy savings of energy codes and compares them to existing estimates based on building simulation models.
- Karsten Neuhoff, Hermann Amecke, Aleksandra Novikova and Kateryna StelmakhAugust 1, 2011
Die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz im Gebäudesektor steht im Zentrum des Energiekonzepts der Bundesregierung. Dort ist das Ziel festgeschrieben, den Wärmebedarfs um 20% bis 2020 zu reduzieren, um anschließend eine Verringerung des Primärenergiebedarfs um 80% bis 2050 zu erreichen. In den vorliegenden Studien analysiert CPI Fragen zu Politikinstrumenten zur Erreichung dieser Ziele.
- Brendan Pierpont, Uday Varadarajan, David Nelson and Anne SchoppJuly 1, 2011
CPI’s Renewable Energy Finance project assesses the impact of policy on the availability and mix of investment in renewable energy.
- Anja Rosenberg, Anne Schopp, Karsten Neuhoff and Alexander VasaJune 1, 2011
In this report, CPI studied the impact of four German energy policies and their related exemptions for industry, differentiated by the size of the firm and the industrial sub-sector.
CPI’s assessment of the impact of policy on the financing of clean energy aims to investigate the effectiveness of policy in promoting efficient investment.
CPI’s focus in this project has been on the effectiveness of policy in helping PV reach its technical potential. In this project overview, we address several of the major questions that policymakers face in their effort to make PV more cost competitive.
In this paper, CPI provides an overview of the PV industry and policies in Germany and China, including deployment support, investment support for manufacturing plants, and R&D support measures.
China’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-2010) set a target to reduce energy intensity by 20% from 2005 levels. Climate Policy Initiative’s “Review of Low-Carbon Development in China 2010” discusses China’s energy performance in key sectors, describes the policies and instruments implemented to meet this target, and provides initial insights that may be valuable as China enters its 12th FYP period.
- February 1, 2011
To drive low-carbon investment, policy frameworks must capture companies’ attention, provide clarity for business decisions, and enable low-carbon investment decisions. CPI and Climate Strategies’ recent joint study indicates that the EU ETS contributes to these requirements, but it also suggests that improvements such as increasing stringency, limiting CDM use, changes in international financial reporting standards, and complementary policies are needed.
On the 14th of October 2010, Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) and the International Center for Climate Governance (ICCG) in collaboration with the Euro-Mediterranean Centre for Climate Change (CMCC) hosted a workshop to convene key players in climate finance. The workshop provided a platform for policymakers and experts from research organizations and finance institutions active along the spectrum of public and private finance issues to initiate a concrete dialogue on climate finance.