Power

The UK has made good progress decarbonizing the electricity grid, but significant further investment is required to scale up renewables, replace remaining fossil fuel generation (natural gas), and upgrade the network.

Power sector emissions in the UK have fallen by two-thirds since 2010, the fastest rate of any sector. A net zero pathway requires a further reduction in remaining emissions from 2020 levels by almost two-thirds by 2030 and 90% by 2040. Investment was high through 2014 to 2016 but fell into 2017, likely linked to instability of supportive policies.

Investment needs are relatively low in the early 2020s owing to lower costs of renewable generation, rise rapidly to pay for additional, relatively expensive flexible generation, and decline before 2040 as technology costs fall. The Climate Change Committee estimates unabated fossil fuel generation, including gas, must be phased out by 2035. As well as variable renewables (wind and solar) and flexible low-carbon generation (such as hydrogen or gas with CCS), the grid must be upgraded and its capacity expanded to support electrification. Supportive policies are needed, such as continued long-term contracts for low-carbon generation capacity (especially offshore wind), and regulatory measures like a mandatory emissions intensity limit declining to zero by 2035.

Volume by other sectors


Industry

Emissions

MtCO2e

Chart - How to read

Historical greenhouse gas emissions and projected emissions in a Paris-aligned pathway based on the balanced net zero scenario in the 6th Carbon Budget published by the UK’s Climate Change Committee (CCC). Emissions are measured in MtCO2e.

Sources: CCC
TRENDS BENCHMARKS

Investments

USD billion

Chart - How to read

Historical investment flows – specifically primary investments into productive assets or activities – compared with the level of investment needed in each sector to achieve the emissions reductions required to reach net zero. Investments are measured in USD billion.

Sources: CPI, CCC
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Real estate

Emissions

MtCO2e

Chart - How to read

Historical greenhouse gas emissions and projected emissions in a Paris-aligned pathway based on the balanced net zero scenario in the 6th Carbon Budget published by the UK’s Climate Change Committee (CCC). Emissions are measured in MtCO2e.

Sources: CCC
TRENDS BENCHMARKS

Investments

USD billion

Chart - How to read

Historical investment flows – specifically primary investments into productive assets or activities – compared with the level of investment needed in each sector to achieve the emissions reductions required to reach net zero. Investments are measured in USD billion.

Sources: CPI, CCC
Explore Real estate

Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use

Emissions

MtCO2e

Chart - How to read

Historical greenhouse gas emissions and projected emissions in a Paris-aligned pathway based on the balanced net zero scenario in the 6th Carbon Budget published by the UK’s Climate Change Committee (CCC). Emissions are measured in MtCO2e.

Sources: CCC
TRENDS BENCHMARKS

Investments

USD billion

Chart - How to read

Historical investment flows – specifically primary investments into productive assets or activities – compared with the level of investment needed in each sector to achieve the emissions reductions required to reach net zero. Investments are measured in USD billion.

Sources: CPI, CCC
Explore Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use

Waste

Emissions

MtCO2e

Chart - How to read

Historical greenhouse gas emissions and projected emissions in a Paris-aligned pathway based on the balanced net zero scenario in the 6th Carbon Budget published by the UK’s Climate Change Committee (CCC). Emissions are measured in MtCO2e.

Sources: CCC
TRENDS BENCHMARKS

Investments

USD billion

Chart - How to read

Historical investment flows – specifically primary investments into productive assets or activities – compared with the level of investment needed in each sector to achieve the emissions reductions required to reach net zero. Investments are measured in USD billion.

Sources: CPI, CCC
Explore Waste

Transport

Emissions

MtCO2e

Chart - How to read

Historical greenhouse gas emissions and projected emissions in a Paris-aligned pathway based on the balanced net zero scenario in the 6th Carbon Budget published by the UK’s Climate Change Committee (CCC). Emissions are measured in MtCO2e.

Sources: CCC
TRENDS BENCHMARKS

Investments

USD billion

Chart - How to read

Historical investment flows – specifically primary investments into productive assets or activities – compared with the level of investment needed in each sector to achieve the emissions reductions required to reach net zero. Investments are measured in USD billion.

Sources: CPI, CCC
Explore Transport
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